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Niche of Truth

The universe has a Creator, the Most Merciful God who provided air and water so that life may flourish on this planet. Through the periodic message He sent through messengers, God instructed us how we should live and what should be the ultimate aim of our lives. We are accountable to God for all our actions and after we die, we shall be rewarded for our good deeds and punished for our crimes. Hence, a man's only way to spiritual salvation is to live according to the directions given by God Almighty, The Qur'an is the last code of such revelations made by the Creator. It was through Prophet Muhammad that these invaluable instructions reached mankind. Amongst men there are some who have received the supreme knowledge and others who have not. It is the obligatory duty of everyone who has received the message to convey it to others. We are trying our best to furnish this duty under the umbrella of Niche of Truth, with all the permissible means, Alhamdulillah.

About Niche of Truth

NICHE OF TRUTH is an organization, which makes dedicated efforts to convince Muslims of the duty of Islamic propagation as well as to enlighten others of the excellence of Islam, its teachings and values.
The universe has a Creator, the Most Merciful God who provided air and water so that life may flourish on this planet. Through the periodic message He sent through messengers, God instructed us how we should live and what should be the ultimate aim of our lives. We are accountable to God for all our actions and after we die, we shall be rewarded for our good deeds and punished for our crimes. Hence, a man's only way to spiritual salvation is to live according to the directions given by God Almighty, The Qur'an is the last code of such revelations made by the Creator. It was through Prophet Muhammad that these invaluable instructions reached mankind. Amongst men there are some who have received the supreme knowledge and others who have not. It is the obligatory duty of everyone who has received the message to convey it to others. We are trying our best to furnish this duty under the umbrella of Niche of Truth, with all the permissible means, Alhamdulillah.
O' Lord! This is a humble venture intended for the propagation of the Religion of Truth, an earnest attempt to fulfill the responsibility that Thou hast entrusted us. I beseech Thee that this endeavor may be justly rewarded, Ameen.

Public programmes with Question and Answer session :

Niche of Truth organizes regular public talks followed by open question & answer sessions for the proper presentation of Islam as well as removing misconceptions about Islam. Thousands of such talks have been conducted all over India and abroad. An average of 5000 to 20000 people participate in each programme, which includes an average of 20 percent Non-Muslims.

Debates with the Scholars of other Religions and Atheist leaders:

Niche of Truth organizes regular debates with scholars of other religious faiths in order to propagate the truth and excellence of Islamic teachings and to prove that it is the only faith based on reason, logic and science. More than 20 such debates have been conducted in the past. An average of 10000- 20000 people participate in each debate, which includes an average 25 percent Non- Muslims.

Free Islam Correspondence Course for Non-Muslims

Niche of Truth conducts a Correspondence Course for those who are interested in learning about the religion of truth. This course is only Non Muslims and will help in providing a reasonable knowledge about Islamic teachings and principles. Duration of the course is one year. More than 1000 people are studying about Islam on a comprehensive basis thru this course every year.

Books and Pamphlets, which introduces Islam to Non-Muslims and clearing their doubts

Niche of Truth handles free distribution of pamphlets and books as part of its continued efforts to propagate the religion of truth. Many people became interested in knowing about Islam through our books and pamphlets. Niche's publications are in Malayalam and English. Many of our publications had been translated into many other languages like Tamil, Telugu and Kannada by the Da'wah organizations in those areas.

Attempts for giving responses to the criticisms against Islam

As the Islamic Da'wah works are getting more and more active and strong the attempts by our enemies to malign Islam by misinterpreting Quranic verses and Prophet's actions are now at an increase more than ever. Niche of Truth publishes of books and cassettes, which give responses to their criticisms.

Creative media only for Islamic Da'wah

creative media is a unit for the production of documentaries and other electronic materials for the purpose of Islamic propagation. We have published a number of video documentaries introducing Islam scientifically and responding to the criticisms on Islam logically.

Snehasamvadam, the monthly magazine, which deals Da'wah related topics only

The need for a publication solely for Da'wah related topics was felt as need of the time since Atheists as well as the propagators of other religious faiths stay united in maligning Islam through all possible medias. Snehasamvadam monthly was the result of our efforts in this field. Snehasamvadam tells the truth openly as this was the tradition of our beloved prophet Muhammad (S). Snehasamvadam gives timely responses to criticisms against Islam as well as enlightening the Muslim youth on how to do effective Da'wah works.

Reference Library for Da'ees

To facilitate better learning and to do research on Islam and comparative religion Niche has a Reference library at its head office in Cochin.

Mobile Da'wah unit to spread the message of Islam in the rural areas

Niche has a mobile unit intends to spread the message of Islam in each and every nook and corner of the country. It consists of a van, a video projector, a sound system and a Generator. The unit exhibits video films on Islam; distribute Pamphlets, books and cassettes on Islam. This unit conducts programmes in at least three areas on a daily basis, thus able to spread the true message of Islam to ordinary people who does not get an opportunity to participate in our public programmes. Through our mobile unit the Da'wah activities in Kerala has reached such a stage that there is no day or area without Niche's Da'wah programs.

Niche of Truth Centres

The head office of Niche of Truth is at Cochin. To make our Da'wah activities more convenient and to ensure participation to general public from different walks of life and areas , we have opened our centres in Calicut, Tirur, and Nilambur. These centres have facilities for the public to view and listen the cassettes of our programmes's and has reading area for the reading of books and other reference materials in the field of Da'wah and having discussions relating to Islam.


Niche of Truth,
4th Floor, Salafi Masjid Building,
Vyttila, Cochin - 19,
Phone:- 0484-2301275, 2301175, 2301576


Niche of Truth,
3rd Floor, Darussalam Complex
IG Road, Kozhikode,
Phone:- 0495-2725078, +91 9846172323

Internet Sites, which gives a true picture of Islam and provides Responses to the Criticisms against Islam. Our websites: www.nicheoftruthonline.com, www.snehasamvadam.org, www.muhammadnabi.info, www.mmakbar.info are launched as the earnest attempts to use almost all the modern communication tools for Islamic Da'wah.

Free distribution of Qur'an translations:

As part of our continued efforts to spread the true message of Islam we are distributing the Qur'an translations to Muslims at the cost price and to interested Non Muslims as complimentary copies.

Da'wah Training Workshop:

To enlighten Muslims about the obligatory duty of Islamic propagation and to train them on how to do Da'wah works, Niche of Truth conducts regular Da'wah training Workshops. We are conducting this course during the vacation times.: These workshops are conducted for selective persons from the applicants after a written entrance test. The purpose of this ten day residential workshop is to bring the participants up to become effective Da'ees and good Islamic orators.

Door to door squad works to convey the message of Islam to all residences:

The volunteers of Niche of Truth in various areas gather together in a Masjid or an Islamic centre during holidays for involving in personal dawah activities. .In the nighttime there will be classes and lectures about the fundamental principles for doing Islamic Da'wah and in the daytime they do door to door squad works to convey the message of Islam to all residences. Motivated by this collective Islamic Squad works, our workers are organizing regular personal squads in their areas.

Alhamdulillah the number of reversions to Islam is at an increase for the recent years. Niche is doing whatever possible and within the limit of our available resources to protect and rehabilitate those who become homeless after accepting the religion of truth. We do as much as we can to absorb them to our community and let them live normal life as Muslims. An intensive course on all aspects of the religion is provided for six months to teach them the essence of Tawheed and complete Islamic way of life. Niche of Truth Rehabilitation wing provide new Muslims legal support, protection, education, accommodation as well as support to find out a means for livelihood those who had become destitute due to the reversion. O' Lord! This is a humble venture intended for the propagation of the Religion of Truth, an earnest attempt to fulfill the responsibility that Thou hast entrusted us. I beseech Thee that this endeavor may be justly rewarded, Ameen.

Director's Message

NICHE OF TRUTH is an organization, which makes dedicated efforts to convince Muslims of the duty of Islamic propagation as well as to enlighten others of the excellence of Islam, its teachings and values.The universe has a Creator, the Most Merciful God who provided air and water so that life may flourish on this planet. Through the periodic message He sent through messengers, God instructed us how we should live and what should be the ultimate aim of our lives.We are accountable to God for all our actions and after we die, we shall be rewarded for our good deeds and punished for our crimes.

Hence, a man's only way to spiritual salvation is to live according to the directions given by God Almighty, The Qur'an is the last code of such revelations made by the Creator. It was through Prophet Muhammad that these invaluable instructions reached mankind. Amongst men there are some who have received the supreme knowledge and others who have not. It is the obligatory duty of everyone who has received the message to convey it to others. We are trying our best to furnish this duty under the umbrella of Niche of Truth, with all the permissible means, Alhamdulillah.

Invite all to the way of your lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them inways that are best and most gracious

– (Qur'an 16:125)

Recite in the name of your Lord who created man from a clinging substance.

– (Qur'an 96:1,96:1)

Allah - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of existence.

– (Qur'an 3:2)

FAQ about Islam

Frequently Asked Questions. Following are the common Questions about Islam and its answers.,

What is Islam?

The Arabic word ' Islam' stands for 'Submission' or 'Peace'. In a religious context, it implies the peace that reaches out to one when one completely submits oneself to the will of Almighty God. This is achieved only when the individual acts in accordance with the direction of his Creator in all spheres of life.

Who is the founder of Islam?

The Almighty God who created the universe, endowed man with a special gift of intelligence and thought, to enable him to discriminate between good and bad. Man has also been given, the freedom to choose his own path by either accepting or rejecting the instructions of the Almighty Creator. The divine revelations were conveyed by God to mankind through numerous prophets who preached the ideals to all communities during different periods of human history. The thousands of prophets whom God selected for human guidance have promulgated the basic doctrine with remarkable similarity. The belief in and the profound reverence for all messengers and revealed scriptures from God forms an integral part of Islamic faith. Islam is not a religion founded by Prophet Mohammed, (Peace Be Upon Him). The Qur'an has most emphatically corroborated the fact that the Islamic conception of life was revealed to man by a long chain of prophets chosen by the Almighty Creator.

Who is a Muslim?

The word 'Muslim' means one who has submitted oneself to the Omnipotent Creator. A true Muslim is one who has disciplined his life in accordance with the instructions conveyed by God through His messengers. A person becomes a Muslim not by birth alone, but by his faith and deeds.

Who are the angels?

Angels are the servants of God and they were created from light. They are beyond the realm and reach of human comprehension. They do not have freedom of action and can only carry out the command of God.

How can one be a Muslim?

"I testify that there is none who deserves to be worshipped but Allah. I testify that Mohammed is the messenger of Allah". By taking this solemn oath sincerely and endeavoring to regulate one's life following the instructions conveyed by Allah through his messengers, one becomes a true Muslim. By declaring that there is none worthy of worship save Allah, and that Mohammed is the Prophet of Allah, the believer announces his or her faith in God's oneness, His sole right to be worshipped and that Muhammed is the last of the prophets. It also confirms his or her belief in all prophets and the scriptures they brought.

Why does Islam seems to be strict?

No prophet taught that religion is to be confined within the walls of places of worship. On the contrary, Muslims are expected to follow the instructions of Almighty Allah in the course of all their activities in life. The word 'Muslim' means 'one who has submitted his self to the will of Allah', and for the same reason a true Muslim cannot compromise on anything that stands in the way of guiding his life according to divine strictures. The view that consciousness of God is to be confined only to the place of worship is alien to Islam. Muslims always have religion foremost in their minds whereas many others consider religion as irrelevant in the present age.

What are the Islamic beliefs?

Muslims believe in one, unique, incomparable God, in the angels created by Him, in the revealed Scriptures, in the prophets through whom His revelations were made to mankind, in the Day of Judgement and life after death, individual accountability for actions, and in God's complete authority over human destiny.

What does faith in 'One God' mean?

Allah, the Creator and Protector of all beings in the universe, big and small, in His essence His goodness and his deeds, remains alone and unique. One offers worship only to Him, who is Almighty, higher than everyone else and Himself being perfect in everything. By monotheism, Islam implies, not the mere belief that there is just one God, but it power the way for prayers and offerings to the one who is all Merciful and Omniscient.

Who is Allah?

The Arabic word 'Allah' is the shortened form of 'al-ilah', 'The God, the one and only God, the first, the last, the eternal, the hidden, the manifest, the ultimate reality'. Even non-Muslim Arabs use the term 'Allah' when they speak of God. The basic creed of Islam is this simple formula: 'There is no God but Allah' ('La ilaha illallah'). The Arabic term 'Allah' denoting God, is unique in many ways. It has no plural like 'gods'; it has no gender like 'godess'; nor does this word generate a visual image of any kind. "Allah", He is God, the One true God, He is the one who deserves all worship and there is nothing comparable to him. Nevertheless, ninety-nine different attributes of Allah are named in the Qur'an.

Who are the angels?

Angels are the servants of God and they were created from light. They are beyond the realm and reach of human comprehension. They do not have freedom of action and can only carry out the command of God.

What are the scriptures?

The Scriptures are the sacred books containing divine revelations from God which were conveyed through His messengers for the guidance of man. Prophets were sent to all peoples of all ages, to warn them and guide them to righteousness and virtue. The names of the four known scriptures are 'the Torah', 'the Zabur', 'the Injeel' and 'the Qur'an'. 'The Torah' was revealed to Prophet Moses (Peace be upon him) and it is the greatest among the Israelites books. The Zabur was revealed to Prophet David (Peace be upon him). 'The Injeel' which Allah revealed to Prophet Jesus (Peace be upon him), is a confirmation of 'the Torah' and a complement to it. The Qur'an, which was revealed to the last of the prophets, is but a restatement of the faith delivered to the prophets before him. The more the Qur'an is studied with an unprejudiced mind, the more this truth emerges, that the Qur'an is a confirmation of all the earlier scriptures and messages sent by God through His messengers who lived and preached among various sects of humanity.

Who are the prophets?

Prophets are men, chosen by God at various stages and under varying circumstances of history, to lead men from darkness to light. The Qur'an repeatedly states the fact that prophets with the same message were sent to each and every community. The process of revelation continued unabated, sometimes in succession, at other times in broken sequences until the period in history, when the termination of Divine revelation and messengership, with the Qur'an and Prophet Mohammed (Peace be upon him) became a significant milestone in the history of mankind. It is true that the lives and mission of many a prophet has been made obscure and distorted by legends that grew around them or by people with vested interests, who used the names of these prophets to exploit men and mislead them from the right faith. No prophet of God has claimed himself to be divine. They were all mortals who lived and passed away from this earth after completing their mission of conveying the basic message to mankind, which was a call for the recognition and affirmation of God's existence, uniqueness and Lordship over all creation. It is an integral part of Islamic faith to believe in all the prophets of God.

What does Islam say about life after death?

Death does not terminate man's life. On the other hand, Islam teaches that it is the door that opens to an eternal lifer after death. The appropriate reward for one's earthly deeds, good or bad, is disbursed only in the Hereafter. The Islamic belief is that mankind will be resurrected, on the Day of Judgment, after every creation is destroyed. After being reborn, man will face a trial which will be in absolute control of the Almighty. Here, all the good and bad acts of man during his sojourn on earth will be unfurled before his eyes in order to be ultimately judged by God. The virtuous will be rewarded with virtue and the wrong doers punished appropriately. Those who have made sacrifices and discharges noble deeds will receive the shelter of peace in Heaven and those who have denigrated their lives through vices and evil will be condemned to suffer horrors of Hell. Islam inculcates the concept of accountability both in public and private life of a person by emphasizing the paramount importance of life Hereafter for mankind.

What does faith in destiny mean in Islam?

The Law of God, the Creator and Ruler of the worlds, is a powerful, all pervasive law which governs all that comprises the universe. No creation can lodge this Law and man's position is no different. Even man's environment and physical constitution are regulated on the basis of this divine law. The good and the bad that befall him happen on the basis of divine Destiny. How they befall on each one is in accordance with the predetermined decision made by the Omniscient Creator, who is aware of the ultimate good and evil of mankind. Hence, Islam directs man to believe in Destiny, whether good or bad, which Allah has measured and ordained for all creatures according to His previous knowledge and as deemed suitable by His wisdom.

What are the fundamental sources of Islamic faith?

The sacred fundamental sources of Islamic faith are the Qur'an, and the practice and example of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH).

Who is Muhammed?

Muhammed (PBUH) is the last of the prophets of Islam. It is through him that the religion of absolute submission to God, was perfected. Muhammed (PBUH) is not just the successor of Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, but of all the prophets who were sent across the world, whose names are either known or unknown. His mission was not to establish new religion, but on the other hand, to perfect the Religion taught by the earlier prophets. "We have not sent thee but as a (Messenger) to all mankind, giving them glad tidings, and warning them (against sin), but most men know not." Holy Qur'an 37:15

How was the life of Muhammed?

Muhammed (PBUH) was born at Mecca in AD 570. Having lost his father before his birth and his mother at the age of seven, he grew up as an orphan. Despite the immoral circumstances prevailing in the Arabia of his time, Muhammed was particularly well known for his personality radiating honesty, nobility, sincerity, generosity and trustworthiness. Mohammed (PBUH), at the age of twenty five married Khadeeja, a forty year old trader. He started receiving divine revelations at the age of forty. Being chosen as a prophet, he preached the divine messages to the people of Mecca. Their response however was bitter, arrogant and violent. Beaten up, tortured, and threatened with death, he fled his motherland to Yathrib (Medin) a city in the northern side of Arabia. Consequently a Muslim nation was formed in Madina and its leadership was taken up by him. Battle after battle had to be fought while in Madina when unbelievers attacked the Muslims seeking to destroy the religion of truth. In fact, they were battles fought for freedom to practice religion. The most amazing success of the Prophet's life is the tremendous success which he achieved in transforming the life of his followers in all aspects. In a span of just 23 years, he raised them from the depth of degradation to great moral and spiritual heights so as to make them a model for future generations. He passed away at the age of 63 in Medina, having lived a most fruitful life.

Why is Muhammed called the last Prophet?

"Muhammed is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the messenger of Allah, and the seal of prophets; and Allah has full knowledge of all things." Holy Qur'an 33:40 The earlier prophets had been sent exclusively to particular regions or sects. We learn that many prophets had predicted the arrival of a great prophet who would be a blessing to the whole world. Muhammed (PBUH) is indeed a prophet to the entire world. The messages presented through him are applicable to the last of man on earth. The super human powers which were bestowed on some prophets never lasted beyond their lives. However, the Qur'an which proves the prophethood of Muhammed (PBUH), illustrates its consistency and supremacy and is open for verification by anyone. All authorities are unanimously agreed upon the fact that the life and mission of prophet Muhammed (PBUH) was realised completely under the fullest glare of documented history. The whole life of Muhammed (PBUH) has been recorded in detail and each incident, whether major or minor is worthy to be adopted as a model. It has been emphatically asserted that no messenger of God would appear after Muhammed and that all mankind ought to adopt the guidelines laid down in the Qur'an and to emulate the practice and example of Muhammed (PBUH) since the religion of Islam was perfected by them.

What is Qur'an?

The Qur'an is the final sacred scripture presented through the Last Prophet of Islam. It contains nothing but the words of God. It is the sctipture that can guide all mankind to the last day. For the same reason, the very God who presented it, promised mankind that the Qur'an will be protected and preserved to the last without any alteratoin or interpolation. The Qur'an is the only religious text that is free from any human tampering. It is at the same time a text that can guide men of all times through the right path and is also an irrefutable evidence for the prophethood fo Muhammed (PBUH).

What does Qur'an narrate?

The Qur'an contains the moral instruction, essential for man to suceed during this life on earth and during the life after death. We may say that, the central theme of the Qur'an borders on the relationship between the Creator and the created. The Qur'an is full of narrations that speak of beliefs and practices needed to guide one's life through the path of virtue. The purpose of illustrating incidents of the past that have provided lessons for mankind, is to warn mankind against deviating from the path of God. Along with the precepts that aid to the refinement of the self, if contains the rules and regulations to be observed in life. Besides, the Qur'an also explains various universal phenomena, in a manner that convinces anyone of the existence of God. The Qur'an can also be said to be the crystallisation of one and the same religious consciousness preached by all prophets, and the collection of the essence and clarification of all the scriptures of the past.

Why is Qur'an considered divine?

The Qur'an is a unique book, the like of which is no man is capable of composing. Despite being compiled by an illiterate, who had displayed no literary flair until the age of forty, the unique literary style of the Qur'an, is one that remains absolutely inimitable. Amongst the existing scriptures, the Qur'an remains apart, for it can claim to be the only divine text that maintains the very form in which it was first presented. The moral codes laid down in the Qur'an are applicable for all times and matchless is the righteousness that they manifest. It is indeed a wonder, that over a spell of twenty three years, under varied circumstances, the Qur'an verses dealt with subjects that are vast and intense, without any disscrepancy whatsoever. Incomparable and great is the transformation that the Qur'an engendered. In such a short span, the Qur'an transformed a degraded and depraved society to a point that attained the highest levels of moral excellence, making them the models for the future generation of men. It has been proved beyond doubt that, word for word the prophecies in the Qur'an stem from a supreme source. It is a greater wonder that the Qur'an, which was revealed fourteen centuries ago, at a time when the world was in absolute darkness in the fields of science and technology, does not contain a single statement that is contradictory to modern scientific knowledge. Yet another explicit evidence that indicates the supremacy of the Qur'an is that many of the findings of modern science attest the view that the Qur'an is indeed the word of the Almighty, the Creator of the universe.
"And if you are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant then produce a Sura like thereunto; And call your witness or helpers (if there are any) besides Allah, if your are truthful. But if you cannot – and of a surety you cannot then fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, - which is prepared for those who reject faith." Holy Qur'an 2:23,24

What are the 'Five Pillars of Islam' ?

There are five compulsory acts of worship that are paramount to Islam. They are the Vow of truth, Salat (Prayer), Zakaat (Charity), Fasting and Hajj (Pilgrimage).

What is the Vow of Truth (Shahada)?

"I testify that, none but Allah deserves to be worshipped and Muhammed (PBUH) is the messenger of Allah". It is after taking this pledge that one becomes a Muslim. The person who chants this pledge vows that he will offer worship to the One and Only creator and none else, and that he will lead his life, following the practice and example of Prophet Muhammed (PBUH).

What is Salat (Prayer)?

"A person, who does not desist from bad and unjust deeds after offering prayers, strays away from Allah." Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)
It is the compulsory responsibility of every Muslim to offer Salaat five times a day. The timings to be strictly adhered to fall before sunrise, during midday, evening, after sunset and at night. The Salaat is to be performed after doing ritual ablutions which symbolises purification of body and soul. It is certain that the life of a true Muslim who sincerely takes the vow of truth and offers prayer five times, meticulously standing with folded hands, bowing, prostrating and sitting, thus involving oneself in a conversation with Creator, will be freed of all wrongs.

What is Zakath (Charity)?

"Of their wealth take alms, that so thou mightest purify and sanctify them; and invoke Allah for them. Verily! Your invocations are a source of security for them, and Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower." ( Holy Qur'an 9:103 )
The literal meaning of Zakat is 'to purify'. It is not just a form of charity or almsgiving. Muslims are liable to set apart a share of their own wealth for those who suffer poverty and want in the society. This compulsory charity is known as Zakaat. The Zakaat rate of per annum is fixed at the of 2.5% for goods to be traded and 10% for agriculture produce, (5% if the produce is the result of irrigation). Certain minimum limits have been prescribed for each item, above which 'Zakaat' is due. The Zakaat is to be collected from those liable by the government or by an institution entrusted by the community, in order to distribute to the deserving.

What is Fasting (Saum)?

"Ramadhan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (signs) for guidance and judgement (between right and wrong). So everyone of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spent it in fasting." Holy Qur'an 2:185
It is the responsibility of a Muslim to abstain from taking food and drink and also to abstain from sexual intercourse during day time for a period of one month. Ramadhan, the month in which the Qur'an was first revealed, is the stipulated month for fasting. The believer who observes fasting for a month is able to elevate his self above all temptations of a physical nature.

What is Hajj (Pilgrimage)?

"Whoever performs Hajj solely for the sake of Allah and, in the course of it, abstains from sensuality and disobedience, he returns from there as immaculate as a child just born." Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)
Every healthy and affluent Muslim should undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca, once in his life time. This pilgrimage is known as Hajj. People of different nationalities, languages and colours, gather in millions at Mecca during the month of Hajj. The concept of one humanity upheld by Islam is explicit during Hajj pilgrimage when the pilgrims have the same thought, carry the same prayer on their lips, and are uniformly dressed (the man using just two pieces of cloth – one to wear and the other to cover and the women covering all the parts of their bodies except their face and hands). A single humanity, where there is no discrimination between master or labourer, black or white, elite or lowly, native or foreigner, is symolized by the multitude of humanity that assemble for this holy pilgrimage.

What is Ka'aba?

The Ka'aba is a place of worship situated in Mecca. It is the first shrine built to worship the Almighty. It was in the premises of the Ka'aba that Ibrahim (PBUH), the prophet, abandoned his child and wife, obeying God's command. Ka'aba was rebuilt by Ibrahim and his son Ismail following God's command. Muslims around the world offer Salaat, facing Ka'aba. The Hajj rituals are performed in the premises of Ka'aba.

Do Muslims worship Ka'aba?

Muslims worship only the Omnipotent Creator of the universe. The Ka'aba is a creation, and being the first monument built for the worship of the One True God, Muslims revere it. The Hajj is performed around the Ka'aba, but it does not contain any prayer to the Ka'aba. This applies also to the Salaat being performed facing the Ka'aba. He who worships the Ka'aba and offers prayers to it, does not belong to the Islam.

What is the view of Islam with regard to Virtue and Vice?

Man is incapable of accurately distinguishing and understanding virtue and vice. Prophets were sent by the Almighty to enlighten man on the nature of virtue and vice. Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) is the last prophet and therefore for any man after Muhammed (PBUH), the yardstick to measure virtue and vice is simply the life of Muhammed (PBUH) and the Qur'an, the sacred scripture presented through him. It is sufficient to look up the Qur'an and the ideal life of Muhammed (PBUH) to comprehend the good and bad related to any subject.

What are the specialties of the character of a Muslim?

The Qur'an and the sayings of Muhammed (PBUH) enjoins each Muslim to have the following characteristics in each of his actions. They are-honesty, justice, honouring of contracts, patience, perseverance, tolerance, mercy, humility, affection, decency, love, respect etc.
• Allah will not show mercy to him who does not show mercy
• The strong is not the one who overcomes the people by his strength, but strong is the one who controls himself while in anger
• Modesty and chastity are the parts of the faith.
• The one, who protects the honour of his brethren in his absence, will be saved from the horrible sufferings of Hell.
• It is treacherous to lie to your brethren in matters that he trusts you. Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

What are the characteristics that ought not be in a Muslim?

The Qur'an and the sayings of Muhammed (PBUH) make it clear that, Muslims ought not to harbour feelings deceit, jealousy, greed, hatred, treachery, extravagance, miserliness, pride, hypocrisy, vainglory, mockery, falsehood, gossip, scandal-mongering and short temper.
• Anybody who speaks a lot will have a lot of mistakes, and those who commit a lot of mistakes will have a lot of sins, and those who have a lot of sins will in the Helfire.
• No one will enter Paradise who has even a little bit of pride.
• To be virtuous is to be morally upright. Vice is which causes doubts in your mind and which you did not wish to be seen by others.
• Miserliness and immorality are two bad qualities, which can never come together in a true believer.
• Gossippers and slanderers will never enter Paradise. If any one has any of the following four bad qualities, he is a hypocrite. If he has the only one of these four, there will still be signs of hypocrisy in him until he gets rid of that vice. The four bad qualities are – betrayal of trust, speaking untruth, breaking agreements and shouting foul words during quarrels.
Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

What is the Islamic stand regard to food?

Islam does not accept the stand which recommends the absolute abstinence from food and drink, in order to attain salvation. While permitting the consumption of all good food and drink, Islam strongly and particularly disapproved excesses in this field. A true Muslim is one, who completely abstains from the forbidden food and drink such as carcass, pork, blood, alcohol and the meat that is slaughtered in the name of some one other than Allah.

What is the Islamic code of dress?

Garments are for beatifying and for covering one's body. The mode of dress should never display excess show and arrogance. Islam teaches a decent way of dressing to all women and men. The paramount purpose of clothing is to cover one's nakedness. No man or a woman should dress in a way which rouses sexual desire in a stranger. Women ought to fully cover all the parts of their bodies except the face and hands. The aim of prescribing such a dress code for woman is to protect her honour and to ensure her safety.

How do Muslims regard entertainment?

Islam, while allowing all entertainments that cheer one's mind and body, strictly states that they should not transgress the limits. Islam detests all those pleasures which keep man away from the consciousness of God and those that cause moral degeneration..

What is the Islamic view of marriage?

"And among His signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): Verily in that on Signs for those who reflect.." Holy Qur'an 30:21

It is the stern command of Islam that the sexual instinct, natural to man should attain consummation only through wedlock. Matrimony is a holy act. Celibacy has been strongly prohibited. Marriage is viewed by Islam as a sacred contract. The dos and don'ts that the two mates ought to adopt in matrimonial life have been prescribed by Islam. Obeying these stipulations, man and woman can ensure a successful and blissful married life and a peaceful life after death.
• The resources of this world are for you to enjoy. The best wealth you can have in this world is a good wife.
• The best wealth that a man can have in this world is a good wife. A good wife is one who is a joy to look at, one who obeys her husband's commands and one who protects the wealth during his absence.
• The best of men are those who treat their wives well. Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

What is Islamic wedding?

When the father or the guardian of the bride offers to give her in marriage to the bridegroom and when he accepts the offer in the presence of witnesses, the marriage is solemnised. The prescription of Islam is that the bridegroom ought to give the bride 'mahr' (dower) on the occasion of the wedding and that the consent of the bride should be sought beforehand.

What are the responsibilities of man and woman in a family?

Going by the teachings of Islam, though the responsibilities and rights of man and woman are different in matrimonial life, they are complementary. It is the responsibility of the woman to maintain the home and their children. The man's duty is to protect his home and earn decent livelihood. Islam, which reveres the motherhood of woman, reposes the full responsibility on man to look after her and the children.

What is the Islamic view on polygamy?

Islam permits polygamy on condition that the husband treats the wives in a just manner. However the number of wives should not exceed four. It is sinful and mean to have extra-marital relations. As per the strict code of Islam, on no account should a man stray towards another woman. A man who cannot satisfy his thirst for sex with one wife is allowed to resort to polygamy. Islam completely bans the heinous practice of disowning responsibility after having sexual relation with a woman. Instead, Islam permits, in unavoidable circumstances, a sacred arrangement for keeping wives legitimately, where they are protected and allowed their rights without any partiality. There are contexts where the practice of polygamy becomes more of a social necessary than a personal need, especially when the number of women in a society exceeds that of men. Generally women out number men. During war times the proportion varies further, as men are more likely into account situations like this, when polygamy becomes socially indispensable, and permits it conditionally.

What does Islam say about divorce?

Islam gives necessary instructions for the preservation of family relationship. Conformation to these instructions paves the way for a strong family bond and trouble free matrimonial life. However, Islam is not blind to the discords that may occur in family life. Islam recommends three practical and scientific methods to prevent the severing of family relations due to discord caused by lack of discipline. The first procedure recommends good advice, failing which one boycotts the bed. If this also fails, mild physical punishment can be given, without bruising her body or mind. When all the three methods fail, the relatives of the couple can arbitrate and try for a compromise. If this attempt also fails to reunite the couple, Islam permits a divorce in a decent manner. Islam is very stern on the issue of divorce and it is allowed only in absolutely unavoidable situations.
• Know that all of you are rulers and that you will be questioned about all that you rule over. A leader is a ruler. Every man is the ruler of his household. The woman is in charge of her house and children. Hence every one of you is a ruler and you are responsible for those whom you rule. Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

Who has the right for divorce?

A divorce is possible for both man and woman who are certain that they cannot get along in any way with the partner. Only the manner of divorce varies a little between the man and the woman.

What does Islam say about bringing up children?

It is the duty of the parents to bring up children who are the blessing of family life, in a manner beneficial to their life on earth and life after death. Parents should take care of the material and spiritual needs of the children. They should be loved and respected. Besides, they should be encouraged to do good and prevented form indulging in evil deeds. Islam permits minor punishments to correct wrong deeds without causing injury to their pride. Children should be treated equally. Islam strongly desires that both boys and girls should be brought up with equal regard, without any discrimination.
• Those who do not show mercy towards the young and those who do not show reverence towards elders are not to be considered to belong to our community.
• The greatest gift that a father can give to his son is to teach him good manners.
Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

How should one behave to one's parents?

"Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them but address them, in terms of honour and, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility through mercy, and say: My Lord! Bestow on them your Mercy as they cherished me in childhood." Holy Qur'an 17: 23, 24
Islam teaches that after the obligation to the Creator, one's great obligation is to one's own parents. It is a great sin to be impertinent, negligent and disobedient to them. Only if parents ask the children to act against God, they shall disobey. Even if the parents remain non-Muslims, it is the responsibility of the Muslim children to look after them. It is the unavoidable responsibility of the children to protect their parents who have attained old age. Islam also teaches that it is sinful to rebuke and abuse one's aged parents.
• One who breaks family ties will never enter Paradise.
• To give alms to the poor is charity. But if assistance is provided to a relative, then it is charity as well as strengthening of family ties.
• He who wishes to enter Paradise through the best door must please his parents.
Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

How are the societies that have been conceived by Islam?

"O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other not that may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things)."
Islam teaches that all men are the creations of the One and Only God and that they exist under His protection. It is from a single matter, the essence of clay, that everyone has been created. The origin of all humanity is from the first parents – Adam and Eve. The distinctions that men have created have absolutely no place before the Almighty who created them. The worship offered only to One True God is the source of strength that can unite mankind. Narrow mindedness and shriveled outlook disappear when one prostrates before the almighty. When one realizes that faith and good deeds alone are what makes a man noble in the presence of God, all hastiness and arrogance fostered by pride and vanity and he becomes humble and pious. With the realization that there is only one God, and that all men are His servants, with no distinction between the rich and the poor, the native and the foreigner, the fair and the dark, the elite and the lowly, the master and the slave, they prostrate only before him, the Almighty, the Merciful. This is the picture of the society that has been conceived by Islam, a society without narrow boundaries.

What does Islam say about the neighborhood?

Just as relationship in a family, Islam views that the relationship between neighbours ought to be warm and cordial. The Prophet (PBUH) advised decent behaviour to the neighbours without causing any kind of disturbance to them. He taught us to take into account the opinion of the neighbour with regard to one's character and personality. It is clear that the mutual responsibility amongst neighbours is indeed significant, as exemplified by the advice of the Prophet when he said that no true Muslim fills his belly when his neighbour is starving and that should be considered even if one has to dilute the broth by adding a little water.
• I swear in His Name, Who holds my life, no man is a true believer unless he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself
• Know that you are good if your neighbours speak well of you. Know that you are bad if your neighbours speak badly about you.
Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

Can a Muslim be communal?

Islam teaches that it is not one's birth, but good deeds and faith that determine one's nobility. The Islamic slogan "One God for one mankind" aims at eliminating all the narrow views, like communalism, casteism, racism etc. Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) declared in plain words that "He who invites to communalism, fights and dies for communalism, not belong to us". The followers of Muhammed (PBUH) therefore can never be communal.

What are the Islamic directions in the financial front?

According to Islam all the resources on earth have been created for mankind. It is the right of every human being to make use of the natural resources. Everyone has the right to work hard and earn wealth. However, the earnings should not be the result of the exploitation of others. Income can be earned through business, cultivation, hardwork, trade, and the like. But in every transaction, clear moral instructions have to be observed. What one earns, while observing these moral laws, is his own and not of the society or of the nation. But it is the responsibility of the individuals to spend from their income, to meet the needs of the society and the nation. While Islam sanctions business transactions and approves of fair profits, it prohibits profiteering and hoarding. It bans taking or giving interest and usury. In business, there ought not to be deceit, treachery or fraudulence. The field of production should be free from exploitation. No product should be marketed suppressing its drawbacks. Miserliness and extravagance should be shunned. Aid should be provided to those who suffer from poverty. Zakath has been instituted for this.
• One, who eats his fill while his neighbor starves, is not a true Muslim.
• The trader who is prompt and honest will be among prophets, martyrs and the righteous on Day of Judgement.
• Weigh correctly anything that you sell and when you buy something have it weighed correctly.
• Tell the buyer about the defects, if any, of the goods you sell. Having done that, the transaction is acceptable, if not detestable.
• All fraudulent and treacherous transactions are forbidden.
• Hoarding is a sin. One who hoards food grains in order to sell the same for a better price is a criminal.
• One who repays his debts promptly and in the best manner is the best amongst you.
• Allah's curse will fall on those who lend money on interest and on those who bear witness to such deals.
• Monopoly is unlawful in Islam.
• Cheat not in weights and measures.
Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

What does Qur'an say about master-labourer relationship?

It is only natural that the master and labourer come to picture when production, trade and cultivation set in. The relationship between the master and labourer does not warrant any confrontation. On the other hand, it ought, to be of co-operation, as per the teachings of Islam. The Prophet has said that the income earned through one's own labour is the best income. The labourer should be given the wages that they deserve. There should be a proper agreement with regard to the wages, between the employer and the labourer, before the work starts. The amount thus arrived at should be distributed without making any deduction whatsoever and it should be paid even before the sweat of the labourer dried up. The employee should not be exploited and he should have complete security while doing the work assigned to him. It is the responsibility of the employee to endeavour sincerely for a satisfactory completion of the work assigned to him.
• The best wealth is that which does a labourer earn.
• The best food is that which is earned by one's toil.
• Allah considers the labourer as His friend.
• Allah loves the labourer. One who toils for his family is like one whose struggle in the cause of God.
Prophet Muhammed (PBUH)

What should be the approach of Muslims towards non-muslims?

The teachings of Islam state that the Muslim community should coexist in complete harmony and tolerance with people of other religious communities. The Qur'an prescribes that as long as the other communities do not oppress the members of the Muslim community, they ought to coexist in love and tolerance. This has been demonstrated by Muhammed (PBUH) through his life. Even the subjects of a Caliphate have no right to hamper the freedom of faith nor the freedom of worship of the non-Muslim citizens. The ruler is liable for the complete protection of their lives and property. The Prophet (PBUH) has taught that it is an unpardonable sin to be unjust to non-Muslim citizens.

What is 'Jihad'?

Jihad means "effort", "strive" or "struggle". All efforts to sacrifice, adopting the divine path and in the pursuit of truth are Jihad. The control over self and the surrender to the will of God, is the first phase of Jihad. Jihad is the conquest of one's self in order to ward off all kinds of temptations which might ultimately lead to evil.
"Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you. But do not transgress limits; For Allah loveth not transgressors." Holy Qur'an 2:190
Jihad is also the worthy utilization of one's wealth, energy and time for the divine cause. Just as it is imperative for a person to worship the One True God for becoming a member of the Islamic community, after pledging the vow of truth, it is also his responsibility to propagate the message of the true religion amongst his fellowmen. The efforts of sacrifice which form the path of fulfilling the aforementioned responsibility, is indeed Jihad. The message of the true religion should be conveyed to others by making one's own life the example of the teachings of the religion and also by resorting to the use of logic and good advice. Islam is averse to the idea of forced conversion. The Qur'an makes it very clear that in matters related to religion there ought to be no coercion, and the duty of the followers of the faith is just to enlighten the people and that if any person accepts the faith should be done it on his own accord. Islam does not permit attack on innocent people in the name of religion. Islam permits the use of force if it is indispensable, to ensure freedom of religion in the event of a situation where the right to live according to the tenets of Islam is denied and the freedom to propagate religion is hampered. Islam has sanctioned war only to ensure the end of violence and restoration of peace. It is the stricture of the Qur'an that even in war one should not shed one's dignity nor should one transgress the limits. In the event of a Muslim society being forced into war, all those who are able and healthy should volunteer. All these efforts of sacrifice to protect the true religion constitute Jihad. The armed war is but the last of them, which would be resorted to, when every other choice fails.
"Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: For Allah loveth those who are just." Holy Qur'an 60:8

How did Islam spread in the world?

The reason for the rapid spread of Islam was the attraction that the thinking people developed towards an ideal free from superstition upholding the worship of the 'One and Only God', the Creator and the pursuit of His messengers. It was only natural for those thinking people to be drawn to the practice of a faith that sought the path of 'surrender to God', at a time when their perceptions were fogged by false deities, and their agents who posed as priests. The ideal of 'One God, one humanity', simultaneously put forth by Islam, uproots the parochial beliefs put up in the name of ones birth. The access to the message of 'one humanity' experienced by those who were being oppressed in the name of religion and caste, further led to the propagation of Islam. The selfless and sincere lives led by Muslims who migrated different parts of the world for business purposes and the like, also drew the people of those countries to Islam.
To this day, Islam, which occupies the mind of man though manifold noble ways, continues to influence the thoughts and deeds of millions of peoples in all continents around the world, with its sterling ideals.



Man is born curious. His investigation about himself and about everything that he sees around starts from his very childhood. The child who eagerly breaks open his toy to discover what is inside is a symbolisation of manwho is impatient to discover the reality and cause behind this universe. The scientists who study the unending universe and the sophisticated atoms, too, have this very stimulant as their objective. 

The universe is an open book in front of man who is impatient to find its roots. Lamentably, this open book doesn't enclose the identity of its creator. But every alphabet in this book demands the requirement of an architect behind it. Each leaves of this book reveal the architect to certain extend. 

Man is gifted with the ability to think. While in the midst of this enormous universe, millions of questions pop up in his mind. These questions reflect his impatience and need to discover himself and the universe. From illiterate ones to the highly educated professionals repeat the very same questions. Going through the history of different civilizations, we understand that man has set himself in search of its answers ever since he began to use his brain. 

‘Who is the one who created and sustains everything that we see around?' is the first question that comes running into his mind. Neither the mountain peaks nor the boundless sky has His name stamped on. Yet the more he studies about the mountains, the sky and the oceans, and understands the marvel behind their sustainment, the more he realises the presence of a brilliant creator.

Ponder over the creation of man...From the billions of sperms that the father ejects, one fuse with the ovum in the mother's uterus to form a zygote. This zygote is ignorant of the fact that taste, light, sound, wind, warmth and cold awaits it in the world that it is going to encounter. Nevertheless, 6X1014 (6 followed by fourteen zeros) cells that are formed by the self division of this zygote creates tissues to sense all these factors. Eyes to observe, ears to hear, heart, liver and intestines are formed. Above all, the brain that controls everything is formed. Isn't there a brilliant designer for these? Can a man, the highest end of creation gifted with thinking capacity, consider them as mere accidental formations?

Quran calls upon the mankind to think over the creations to realise the existence of our creator. 

“Do they not look at the Camels, how they are made? And at the sky - how it is raised? And at the mountains - how they are erected? And at the earth - how it is spread out?”(Qur'an 88:17-20)

Anyone who glances at the universe and its phenomena cannot deny the existence of the entity who created it. Islam stands entirely different from the medieval church perspective that free thinking will lead to the denial of the existence of God. Quran verses which draws our attention to the Almighty creator, demands us to grasp with our eyes and ears and to think with our heart. Not even a single verse in it entertains or demands blind belief in God Almighty. In fact, Islam is the only religion that lets humans use their brains to discover the presence of our creator. These Quran verses that encourage man to look around and at himself to discover the indomitable God are pondered over by scientists as well as laymen. Glance at the Quran verse that was first revealed to the Prophet:

“Recite in the name of your Lord who created. He created man from a clot. Read and your Lord is Most Honourable, Who taught (to write) with the pen. Taught man what he knew not.”(Qur'an 96:1-5)

This is an example verse prompting man to think over himself. Indeed few years back, we were nothing. Subsequently, one among the million sperms that the father ejects fuses with one of the mother's ovary to form a zygote. It then developed to form a mass of flesh, later inside which formed bones. This skeletal systemwas then covered with muscles. Then it gave way for eyes, nose, ears, hands and legs. And one day we were delivered into this world from our mother's womb. We live as one among millions on earth. There are a variety of systems working inside us. The skeletal system, nervous system, digestive system, muscular system, reproductive system, circulatory system ...all these are inter related. Yet, none is under our control. The one who fused the sperm and the ovum from two entirely different poles and facilitated our step by step growth is, indeed, the one who incorporated in us, the rules for the running of these systems. An ordinary man who thinks over his own body as well as scientists, who study the human body, equally experiences the excellence of our creator. Quran asks:

“How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless and He brought you to life; then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you [back] to life, and then to Him you will be returned.”(Qur'an 2:28)

“And certainly We created man of an extract of clay, Then We placed him as a sperm-drop in a firm lodging. Then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, and We made the clot into a lump [of flesh], and We made [from] the lump, bones, and We covered the bones with flesh; then We developed him into another creation. So blessed is Allah, the best of creators.”(Qur'an 23:12-14)


“Did you ever consider the sperm that you emit? Is it you who creates it, or are We the Creator?”(Qur'an 56:58,59)

Our creator has arranged all facilities for a newly born kid its sustenance. The facilities to take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide, facilities for maintaining the body temperature, facilities to prevent drying of throat while crying etc. The apt food for him is facilitated in the mother's body itself. Breast milk is without a doubt the best food for a newborn baby. It is enriched with exactly the right amount of nutrients that a baby needs and in a form that it can digest easily. It also contains important antibodies that can help protect the baby from infections during the first months of its life. 

As a baby who feeds on mother's milk grows, he is surrounded by nutrient rich food. Milk of cows and buffaloes is one of the main foods that is available. It provides nourishment not only to kids but also to adults. Cow's milk constitutes of 87.2% water, 3.7% fat, 4.9% sugar and 3.5%protiens and many vitamins and minerals. It is neither them nor us who facilitated milk in the body of goats and cows. Both the milkman at our doorstep and a medical researcher would unanimously comment that it is the creator of the animals and the humans who made way for this.

Have a look at what the Quran says:

“And most surely there is a lesson for you in the cattle: We make you to drink of what is in their bellies, and you have in them many advantages and of them you eat.”(Qur'an 23:21)

“And most surely there is a lesson for you in the cattle; We give you to drink of what is in their bellies— from betwixt the faeces and the blood— pure milk, easy and agreeable to swallow for those who drink.”(Qur'an 16:66)

We realise His excellence even deeply while pondering over the vegetations which forms the basis of our existence. The green leaves are the food preparation centres of the earth. The water and fertilizers that the roots take in are circulated via the stem to reach the leaves. They take in carbon dioxide form the atmosphere. Chlorophyll in the leaves causes water and carbon dioxide to combine into glucose in the presence of sunlight.  This process is termed photosynthesis. The glucose produced during photosynthesis is the basic food of plants and animals. During photosynthesis, the plants take in carbondioxide exhaled by animals and in turn produce oxygen necessary for the animals. This shows the interdependence of plants and animals. In the absence of either plants or animals, the other cannot exist. From farmers to botanists, everyone equally experience the hands of a creator behind the existence of the plants and animals.  The Holy Quran says:

“Have you considered the seeds you sow? Is it you who makes it grow, or are We the grower?”(Qur'an 56:63,64)

A farmer possesses no fundamental role in the growth of a seed that he sows. It grows solely according to the genes present in its DNA and this is indeed godly.

“He causes to grow for you thereby herbage, and the olives, and the palm trees, and the grapes, and of all the fruits; most surely there is a sign in this for a people who reflect.”(Qur'an 16:11)

Anyone who ponders over earth, a member of the solar system, will find it as a cradle holding life. Days and nights are created when the earth revolves around its own axis once in every 24 hours. It takes at an average of 365.2564 days to revolve around the sun in elliptical orbit. The atmosphere acts as a roof for the earth. Life on earth would have been impossible in the absence of the ozone layer that filters out the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun and makes way for other harmless rays that are necessary for the existence of life. To what else other than a roof can the atmosphere that burns the meteors approaching the earth be compared to? If the atmospheric air would have been absent, water on earth would boil during the day and freeze to ice during the night. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that regulates the temperature is balanced with the carbon dioxide that is exhaled by the living beings. The vegetation on earth utilizes approximately 500 billion ton carbon dioxide every year. If the air exhaled by the living beings lacked carbon dioxide, the whole carbon dioxide reserve on earth would have exhausted in just three years, putting an end to life on earth. 

Earth is equipped with every facility to sustain vegetation, living beings and animals. The earth's axis is inclined at an angle of 23°27'. It is the climatic change that makes earth capable for vegetative growth. None can decline the role that rain plays in sustaining life on earth. Water from oceans and rivers evaporate due to sun's heat. These vapours surround the dust particles in the atmosphere and condense. Through a series of complicated phenomena, these condensed clouds give rain. None of the discovered planets, save earth, is blessed with rain in this manner. Both a farmer as well as a climatologist realises that rain is the gift of the almighty to sustain life on earth. Even lightning and thunder accompanying rain are beneficial to the vegetation on earth. They play an important role in converting atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen compounds that can be used up by the plants. Lightning and thunder give rise to 100 million tons of nitrogen manure (nitrogen mixtures that can be used up by the plants). This is ten times that of the total chemical fertilizers produced worldwide. The Holy Quran says that lightning and thunder are two among the proofs for the existence of the almighty creator. 

“He displays before you the lightning, giving rise to [both] fear and hope, and sends down water from the skies, giving life thereby to the earth after it had been lifeless: in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who use their reason!”(Qur'an30:24)

Earth's atmosphere is another factor that makes life secure on earth. Life on earth would have been impossible in the absence of the ozone layer that filters out the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun and makes way for other harmless rays that are necessary for the existence of life. It burns the meteors approaching the earth. Indeed, the atmosphere acts as a roof for the earth. We, dwelling under this roof, only need to pass our eyes around to realize the creator who equipped everything. Quran teaches:

“Who made the earth a resting place for you and the heaven a canopy and (Who) sends down rain from the cloud, then brings forth with it subsistence for you of the fruits; therefore do not set up rivals to Allah while you know. Who made the earth a resting place for you and the heaven a canopy and (Who) sends down rain from the cloud, then brings forth with it subsistence for you of the fruits; therefore do not set up rivals to Allah while you know.”(Qur'an2:22)

The creator's dexterity reflects in every living thing around us. Studying about bees, the engineer among the insects, one will realise the All Powerful Allah's might. They construct strong, multi roomed hives using less wax and effort. Bee hives of precise geometric structure made using the apt quantity of wax is still a marvel for scientists. The division of work existing in the bee society, too, is marvelous. Separate gangs for collecting nectar, for reproduction, hive construction, protection of hives etc. They even sacrifice their lives for accomplishing the duty entrusted upon them. The way they communicate with each other is amazing. They use waggle dance to inform other bees the position of nectar. The shape and slanting of the circles created in this dance give the idea regarding how long and in what direction they have to travel to get nectar. It is needless to mention the medicinal value of the honey they excrete. They have made no effort to gain these abilities that they possess. Neither can they discover anything using their small brains. Who then gifted them these abilities? The answer is nothing other than ‘the one who created them'. How truly the Quran said:

“And your Lord revealed to the bee saying: Make hives in the mountains and in the trees and in what they (men) build: Then eat of all the fruits and walk in the ways of your Lord submissively. There comes forth from within it a beverage of many colours, in which there is healing for men; most surely there is a sign in this for a people who reflect.”(Qur'an 16:68,69)

Same is the situation with every living thing.Fishes in oceans; Birds in the sky; Wild animals; Domestic animals;everyone is gifted with the skills required for it to survive in its environment. The weightlessness of flying birds due to the air filled in the air cells between their bones and feathers enable them to fly. This facility is needless and hence absent in birds that swim in water. The physical structure gifted to those birds that look for prey during the day time is different from owls and Black crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)that of those who look for prey during night. The nest prepared by birds for laying eggs and bringing up their children would amaze every one. When a bird sleeps on a tree branch, its body pressing against its legs bends the legs and curves certain muscles to enable its fingers to entangle in the branches to prevent it from falling down. The wings of birds are another amazing creation. Birds fly at an average speed of thirty to sixty kilometer per hour. There are also birds capable of flying at a rate of hundred to hundred and fifty kilometer per hour. The wings of birds like albatrosswhich fly a great distance without wing movement are gifted with long thin wings and those like quail which rises up quickly and flies very fast are gifted with thick shorter wings. 

Let us take another example. Camel is known as the ship of the desert because it carries heavy load and travels great distance through the desert without food and water. The Arab camels travel at a speed of thirteen to sixteen kilometer per hour carrying load heavier than five hundred kilogram. The long legs of the camels are strong and have powerful muscles allowing it to carry heavy loads for long distances. It walks at a medium speed. It has two toes on each foot. A hoof that looks like a toenail grows at the front of each toe. The camel walks on a broad pad that connects its two toes. This cushion like pad spreads when the camel places its foot on the ground. The pad supports the animal on loose sand in much the same way that a snowshoe helps a person walk on snow. The pad enables the animal to firmly grasp the earth. The toenails protect the feet from damages resulting from a bump. Thick, broad sole pads and thick callosities on the joints of the legs and on the chest, upon which it rests in a kneeling position, enable it to withstand the heat of the desert sand. It is also able to close its nostrils against flying dust and its eyes are shielded by eyelashes. 

The camel has three eyelids and two layers of eyelashes to protect itself from dust and sun. To protect their eyes, camels have long eyelashes that catch most of the sand when desert winds blow sand on to their eyes. If sand gets into an eye a camel has a third eyelid to get it out. The extra eyelid moves from side to side and wipes the sand away. As the eyelid is very thin the camel can see through it. So a camel can find its way through a sandstorm with its eyes closed.

Camels have the power to smell water one and a half kilometers away from it and can open or close its nostrils at its own will to prevent sand from entering its nose during sand winds.Their upper lip is split into two to prevent injury due to thorns from the plants on which it feeds. The greatest wonder is the hump on its back. It is the hump that facilitates it to travel through the dry dessert without food and water. When it gets lots of water and food, the hump stores fat and enlarges. During the time when it has to go without water, this fat disintegrates to produce hydrogen atoms that combine with the oxygen form the air it breaths to produce water for various activities of its body. 

What can a man with brain and logic witness in these creations who are gifted with every facility to adjust to the environment they are in? Is it the dexterity of a creative creator or a mere coincidence?

“And Allah has created from water every living creature: so of them is that which walks upon its belly, and of them is that which walks upon two feet, and of them is that which walks upon four; Allah creates what He pleases; surely Allah has power over all things.”(Qur'an 24:45)

The sun and the moon that are linked to everyday human life have always wondered man. When the ancient people were astonished at sun rise and sun set, its position and the phenomena occurring in it amaze the present men.  If the temperature of the sun falls by 13 percentages below the present value, earth would be covered with ice and if it exceeds by thirty percent, everything on earth would be burned up. Alost every phenomena on earth depend on the sun. If sun would have been absent, the snow wouldn't melt, the rivers wouldn't flow, clouds would not be formed, wind current never flows, flowers would not bud, rain would not pour and life wouldn't exist.The temperature at the core of the sun is 6.5 billion °C. It experiences a pressure of 100 thousand pounds per square inch. Mass of the sun per square meter is 1.98892 × 1030 kg. Sun, the source of energy of the solar system, produces energy through nuclear fusion(the same process taking place in hydrogen bomb).In other words, in every second, thousands of hydrogen bomb blasts take place in the sun. 1025 Joules of energy is produced every second. (According to present day statistics, this energy produced in one second is sufficient to produce electricity required by the whole earth for ten-thousand years.) Sun is one member of Milky Way in the galaxy. Sun exists approximately 320000 light years away from the centre of the galaxy. The sun revolves around the centre of the galaxy in circular orbit at a speed of 250 kilometer per second. It takes 250 million years or one cosmic year to revolve around the center of galaxy once. The more we learn about the sun, the more we realize the unequalled creator behind it. It is according to his rules that the sun and the moon travel. These rules will never err. Quran says:

“And the sun runs on to a term appointed for it; that is the ordinance of the Mighty, the Knowing.”(Qur'an 36:38)

“It is He Who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its orbit”(Qur'an21:33)

Man who learns the extent of the universe and his position in it would bow his head in front of the creator. Thousands of clusters in the universe…Thousands of galaxies in each clusters…each galaxy includes billions of stars, pulsars, quasars, nebulas, black holes; sun is one member of milky way which is one among the galaxies. Sun extends 1.35 million times greater than the earth. This means that 1.35 million earths' can be incorporated in the sun. MilkyWay consists of stars that are a billion times bigger than the sun. Sun, a star of moderate size contains nine planets revolving around it. Other than the sun and the planets, the solar system comprises also of satellites, comets, meteors etc. Earth is one among the nine planets. Human race is one among thousands of races on earth. We are just one among the billions of members of this human race. While studying about the clusters, galaxies, stars, sun, planets,earth and living creature, the realization fills our heart- how restrictd our powers, our abilities and we ourselves are! How truly the Quran said

“Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day, and the ships that run in the sea with that which profits men, and the water that Allah sends down from the cloud, then gives life with it to the earth after its death and spreads in it all (kinds of) animals, and the changing of the winds and the clouds made subservient between the heaven and the earth, there are signs for a people who understand.”(Qur'an 2:164)

“Do they not look into the realm of the heavens and the earth and everything that Allah has created and [think] that perhaps their appointed time has come near? In what message after this(Qur'an) will they then believe?”(Qur'an7:185)

“Allah created the heavens and the earth in true (proportions): verily in that is a Sign for those who believe.”(Qur'an 29:44)

Sun is a mere member of the Milky Way, a galaxy. Ten thousand billions of stars, both smaller and larger than the sun have been discovered in the Milky Way. This galaxy extends over 1, 20,000light years. Hundred billion of such galaxies have been discovered. All these are moving apart every second. In other words, the universe is expanding. On this basis, the scientists comment that there may be galaxies that man can never discover due to their distance from us. If this turns true, however man leaps to heights in discovering the universe, he would still remain unacquainted with a large portion of it. 

Quran teaches man to glance at ourselves and our surroundings to realize the creator. It does not uphold blind belief. Islam talks to human intellect. It leads man to realize the existence of the creator by calling his attention to the amazing system followed by every minute and massive creation in the universe.

Detailed study of the world leads not to denial of the divine entity. It leads man to the realization of the existence of the all-knowing and all-powerful creator. Every weapon of atheistwho have tried to develop proofs for atheism on the basis of Newtonian physics, have turned blunt in the light of new discoveries. The picture of today's world is different. We understand today's world on the basis of the time space continuum theory put forward by Einstein. The primary knowledge that the two theories of relativity provides is that we can study the world completely only if we are outside it. How much ever technologies and brain he uses, man, who exist in a small portion of this vast universe, will never succeed in discovering the universe completely. We can only grasp relative knowledge. On the basis of the theory which says that one has to be outside the universe to study the universe completely, who can deny the religious concept that the creator, who designed and is acquainted with everything in the micro and macro worlds, is be beyond the world?

It is regretful that the atheists are entangled in the illusory concept of Newtonian physics that views every worldly phenomenon and rule as objective and completely realizable.  Today, almost every branch of science has realized that it is a mere dream that man can discover every nook and corner of the universe.  The science of astronomy agrees to the fact that however powerful telescope man uses, there would still be galaxies unseen since the universe is expanding at the speed of light year. The astronomers are doubtful whether the discovered universe would turn at least 10 percentage of the total universe. The case of micro universe is no different. Nuclear physics is the scientific branch that accepts Heisenberg's uncertainty principle which says that it is impossible to know an atom completely. Scientific philosophers, who claimed these to be mere crisis that the scientific world would soon get out of, have also been proved wrong by modern researches. Materialistic viewpoints built on the concept that complete and objective analysis of the universe can be established, shattered into pieces because of the foundation paved on the illusory concept of denial of the God Almighty.

It is indeed true that detailed study of the universe would soon explain the existence of the unequalled power of the creator behind it. 

“Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand. Those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord! Thou hast not created this in vain! Glory be to Thee; save us then from the chastisement of the fire.”(Qur'an 3:190,191)


Knowledge can be classified into two- tangible or apparent knowledge and spiritual knowledge. The first one is that which can be acquired by anyone. Scientific knowledge comes under this category. It wouldn't be wrong if it is named sensation or perceptible knowledge. Experience is its basis. Referring tangible or apparent knowledge to sensation or perceptible knowledge doesn't chain it up in the five sensational knowledge. In addition to the knowledge provided by the senses and physical organs, the unintrospective knowledge that the mind provides also comes within its boundary. The theories that are shaped in the minds of the scientists while trying to assemble factual knowledge is, also, a part of tangible or apparent knowledge. Even though theories are evolved out of intuitions formed while scientists beat their brain over the questionnaire, the basis of these intuitions is knowledge and studies. Due to this, there is no essence in taking these intuitions beyond tangible knowledge.

Verily, Human potential is limited. Our brain makes out things with the knowledge gained using the five sense organs. These senses, too, are limited. Only those lights with wavelengths between 380 and 780 milli microns can be perceived by the human eye. The rays with wavelengths greater or lesser than this range, like the ultra violet rays, X rays, infra red rays, cosmic rays are not perceivable for the human eye. Human ear hears only those sounds within 20 and 20,000 Hz. Ultra sound waves are insensible to our ears. Similar is the case of human taste as well as smell.  

Since our senses are limited, the brain that synthesizes the information handed over by these senses to make decisions, should also be limited in some manner. In what way is the brain limited? It can only think and manipulate something that has substance. Our brain can neither comprehend nor create hypothetical picture of anything that is without substance. In other words, it can deal only in a time space continuum. Brain is not designed to deal with anything beyond time space continuum.  

Spiritual knowledge, the second kind, is not something that can be attained through self effort. According to the Islamic concepts, it is the prophets chosen by Allah who spread spiritual knowledge to the world. The prophethood itself cannot be attained as and when anyone wants. It is a Godly gift. Allah selects the ones whom he desires to entrust him with His message. More rightly put forward, He moulds into a prophet, the ones whom He has selected. In the holy Quran, Allah says ‘I sent' while referring to the prophets. This makes clear that prophet hood is not a status that can be attained out of self effort. 


“We sent not a messenger, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah.”(Qur'an 4:64)

The prophets were assigned to teach the reality beyond tangible or apparent knowledge. Their duty was to spread knowledge that the human cannot attain through experience. Since they were enriched with this knowledge through divine revelation (wahi), they were completely assured of its authenticity. To make the people informed, aayahs (divine proofs) were revealed to the prophets. These aayahs served as tangible proofs that the prophets were receiving revelation. The only path open in front of man is to study and realise the divine source behind these aayahs and accept what the prophets point out as spiritual knowledge. It is one among the basic believes of Islam that prophet Muhammad was the last one to be gifted with divine revelation (wahi). He was the last prophet assigned to deliver spiritual knowledge unto the last man on earth. With him ended the long series of prophets that Allah assigned to lead the humans. 

The Quran that Allah revealed and the life of the prophet are the two resources of spiritual knowledge. For a Muslim, no other source can be accepted authentically. 

We witness many people looking upon personal experience as the prime source of spiritual knowledge. However, these experiences cannot be proved experimentally. One's experience cannot be tested by someone else to prove its authenticity. Anyone can easily lie about his own experience and there is no means to spot it out. Moreover, even if they are sincere in quoting their observation, there is no way to distinguish whether they are divine plots or devils' to lead us astray. Lot of such difficulties will arise when the source of spiritual knowledge fails to be experimented. As a result, Islam stands against considering mere personal experiences as a source of spiritual knowledge. 

When Islam rejects personal experiences being sources of spiritual knowledge on the ground that they are not provable, the sources that Islam points out, the Quran and the Sunnah, should be and is indeed testable. On applying upon Quran, any test apt to prove a source to be divine, Quran will splendidly emerge with flying colours. The case of Sunnah is no different. It can be proved without a trace of doubt that prophet Muhammad (saw) was the messenger of Allah. The words and the mode of life that is reported to be of the prophet can be scientifically tested to prove that those are his. The Holy Quran instructs mankind to test these two sources and once realised, to accept these as scriptures of spiritual knowledge. 

Islam refers to the sole entity who created and sustains everything as Allah. The fact that He is unrivalled in his acts comes within the circle of apparent knowledge. But how can we know the character of His entity? It requires only common sense to realise that the creator of the world of substance will transcendent substance. It is therefore impossible to experience this entity with our senses. 

The tangible knowledge, that which man can acquire, is that which is perceived by the senses. Man stands different from and superior to animals due to his gifted brain that allows him to interpret and conclude results based his observations via his senses. Yet we lag in the efficiency of the senses when compared to them. Dog's sense of smell, Eagle's eye sight and bat's sense of hearing stands above ours. However none of the animals have the ability to process the observed information to use and deliver it in a better way. Here lies the superiority of man...the excellence of his brain. He can develop and interpret beyond the information that his senses catch. Yet, no one can deny the fact that our brain, too, is limited. The raw materials for the brain are contributed by the senses. Since senses deal only with the material world, it is indeed impossible for it to process Him who is beyond a material. Here is where the brain restrains itself. This says without further explanation that man is incapable to provide self explanations and conclusions regarding Allah's entity. 

This underlines the fact that Islam considers nothing other than Qur'an and Sunnah as sources revealing knowledge about the creator Allah. Muslims realise these sources to be revealed from the Almighty Lord and thus accept it whole heartedly. The knowledge revealed by the Lord through the Quran and through the words and lifestyle of His messenger has to be accepted as such without enlisting extra meanings and definitions that turn up in human brain. All ways diverging from this are based purely on assumptions and hence prone to mistakes. 


Allah is the creator of the entire universe...the creator of every minute as well as massive phenomenon...the creator of each and every object from atoms to constellations. Man's search for reasons behind every phenomena and every fact comes to an end in Him who is beyond any reason. He is the ultimate destination of all queries. Since every object in this universe, however small or big, demands a reason, certainly, the one who is beyond all quests and doesn't demand a reason should be remote from this world and should be beyond a being. Thus Allah, who is the creator of the world but remote from the world, is indeed the processor of an entity that possesses characteristics beyond that of a substance. 

Allah created time-space continuum. But Allah's entity is beyond time-space continuum. Human beings are incompetent to guess or deduce the characteristics of this entity. It is beyond the capability of human brain, which is chained by time-space continuum, to picturise Allah who He is beyond the time space continuum circle. The following Quran verse points at this fact:

“No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.”(Qur'an 6:103)

Since human brain is incapable to deduce His characteristics, He should introduce Himself to us. The knowledge about Allah that He Himself has revealed to us is the only available gateway to understand Him. The pious preceding scholarshave taken the stand to accept all the descriptions of Allah reported in the Quran and prophetic words as such without trying to elaborate or reduce anything from it. If they came across any description that seemed unable to be understood due to the limitations of the human brain, they humbly comment ‘Allah knows the best'. This, in fact, is the right stand. All those who tried to assign self explanations and deductions of the Godly entity according to their logic and brain have resulted entangled in philosophy portraying strange and shattered images for God. Those inside the Muslim community as well as those outside have unfortunately fallen victims of this.

The word ‘daath' can be translated as entity in English.  Nowhere in the Quran can we find the word ‘daath' while discussing about Allah. In places where the word ‘daath' is mentioned, it does not take the meaning ‘entity of Allah'. The holy Quran and prophetic words make clear that Allah's ‘daath' is beyond human guesses, explanations and deductions. The sole option in front of the prudent ones is to ensure the authenticity of the Quran and hadiths and accept it whole heartedly. 

Indeed the statement, the creator of the universe should be beyond the universe, is a naive logic. It doesn't require years of research to make out that the creator of an object will not be a part of the object.  This simple logic is put forward in the holy Quran.

“Do ye feel secure that He Who is in heaven will not cause you to be swallowed up by the earth when it shakes. Or do ye feel secure that He Who is in Heaven will not send against you a violent tornado (with showers of stones), so that ye shall know how severe was My warning?”(Qur'an 67:16, 17)

“He regulates the affair from the heaven to the earth; then shall it ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years of what you count.”(Qur'an 32:05)

“If any do seek for glory and power, to Allah belong all glory and power. To Him mount up (all) Words of Purity: It is He Who exalts each Deed of Righteousness. Those that lay plots of Evil, for them is a penalty terrible; and the plotting of such will be void (of result).”(Qur'an 35:10)

“To Him ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the measure of which is fifty thousand years”(Qur'an 70:04)

Some Hadiths, too, introduce Allah as the one in the heaven.

Mu'awiyathibnu Abu al-Hakam said: “I had a maid-servant who tended goats by the side of uhud and Jawwaniya. One day I happened to pass that way and found that a wolf had carried a goat from her flock. I am after all a man from the posterity of Adam. I felt sorry as they (human beings) feel sorry. So I slapped her. I came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and felt (this act of mine) as something grievous I said: Messenger of Allah, should I not grant her freedom? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Bring her to me. So I brought her to him. He said to her: Where is Allah? She said: He is in the heaven. He said: Who am I? She said: Thou art the Messenger of Allah. He said: Grant her freedom, she is a believing woman.”(Sahih Muslim)

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, “If somebody gives in charity something equal to a date from his honestly earned money ——for nothing ascends to Allah except good—— then Allah will take it in His Right Hand and bring it up for its owner as anyone of you brings up a baby horse, till it becomes like a mountain.” (Sahih Bukhari)

The following is a part of a lengthy Hadith regarding Hajjathul Vidareported by Ja'far IbnMuhammad:

“...And you would be asked about me on the Day of Resurrection, (now tell me) what would you say? They said: ‘We will bear witness that you have conveyed the message, discharged the ministry of Prophet hood and given wise (sincere) counsel.'  The Prophet then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people and said:   “O Allah, be witness. 0 Allah, be witness,” saying it thrice.(Sahih Muslim)

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Amr : The Prophet said: The Compassionate One has mercy on those who are merciful. If you show mercy to those who are on the earth, He Who is in the heaven will show mercy to you.(Sunan Abu Dawood, Jaami utThirmidi- This is classified as Sahih by Sheikh Albani in his Jamiiut Thirmidhi Hadith No: 1923)

These Hadiths and Quran verses do not convey the image of a God enthroned in the blue sky similar to that of the Hindu scriptures. We know that it is due to the scattering of the sun's rays that the sky appears blue. In fact there is no such sky. Quran talks in chapter 71 verse 15 about the seven skies that are created one above the other and it is in the first sky that the stars and the planets are deployed. 

“Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the lower heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower.” (Qur'an 41:12)

“We have adorned the lower heaven with the adornment of the stars”(Qur'an 37:06)

From these verses we get an idea that the universe that man has already discovered and that he is going to discover in future is within the first sky. There isn't, indeed, a slightest doubt that the one who created these seven skies is beyond the skies. Quran verses and Hadiths referring to Allah as ‘the one in the heavens', reveal this very essence. 

This point might instinct the following doubt. Both the verse in surah mulk (67:16) as well as the Hadith reported by Abdullahibnu Amrubnul Aaswil recorded in Abu Dawood and Thirmidi uses the phrase ‘man fi samaa'. ‘The one in the heavens' is probably the rough translation of this phrase. The preposition ‘fi' is used to denote ‘in' or ‘inside' in Arabic. For example, ‘fil baythi' means ‘inside the house'. ‘alal baythi' is used to denote ‘above the house'. Thus it is natural to doubt whether the term ‘fi samaa' holds the meaning ‘inside the sky'. Proficient Qur'an interpreters have responded to this doubt. They comment that even though the preposition ‘fi' means ‘in', it sometimes takes the meaning ‘on' and hence ‘fi samaa' used in the above verses refers to ‘beyond the heaven'. Examples for using the word ‘fi' instead of ‘ala' to refer to ‘on' can be quoted from the Qur'an itself. The following is an extract from the Quran that draws our attention to the words of Pharaoh:

“... Surely this must be your leader, who has taught you magic! be sure I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will have you crucified on trunks of palm-trees...”(Qur'an 20:71)

In this verse, the Arabic phrase ‘fi judooinnakhli' is translated as ‘on the trunks of palm tree'. It is evident that the phrase ‘fi' is used with the meaning ‘on'.  

When Allah is referred to as ‘beyond the universe', it does neither imply that he is ignorant of any universal phenomena nor that he has no power over it. In turn, even though His entity is beyond the universe, He overpowers all sophisticated as well as naive phenomena. He isn't ignorant of any single phenomena...even the leaves dangle exclusively at His command. There isn't a single area among the creations which is beyond His interference. 

“With Him are the keys of the unseen, the treasures that none knoweth but He. He knoweth whatever there is on the earth and in the sea. Not a leaf doth fall but with His knowledge: there is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth, nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered), but is (inscribed) in a record clear (to those who can read).”(Qur'an 6:59)

“He is the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, the Great, the High Exalted. Alike (to Him) among you is he who conceals (his) words and he who speaks them openly, and he who hides himself by night and (who) goes forth by day.”(Qur'an 13:09,10)

“And whether ye hide your word or publish it, He certainly has (full) knowledge, of the secrets of (all) hearts. Should He not know what He created? And He is the Subtile, the Aware.”(Qur'an 67:13,14)

“This is so, because Allah is the Reality: it is He Who gives life to the dead, and it is He Who has power over all things.”(Qur'an 22:06)

“Blessed be He in whose hands is Dominion; and He over all things hath Power”(Qur'an 67:01)

Quran teaches that Allah is indeed close to us.

“When My servants ask thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them): I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will, Listen to My call, and believe in Me: That they may walk in the right way.”(Qur'an2:186)

“We verily created man and We know what his soul whispereth to him, and We are nearer to him than his neck vein. Behold, two (guardian angels) appointed to learn (his doings) learn (and noted them), one sitting on the right and one on the left.

Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by him, ready (to note it).(Qur'an 50:16-18)

Certain Hadiths, too, depict the same.

Abu Musa Al-Ashari reported: While on a journey with the prophet, they prayed aloud. Then the prophet said: “The one whom you pray to is neither deaf nor far. He is indeed near and hears your prayers and answers them.”(Musnad Ahmed, Hadith:18780)

Abu Huraira reports: The prophet said: “Allah says: I am with my slave whenever he remembers me and moves his lips in remembrance.” (Musnad Ahmed, hadith:10545)

Prominent Quran interpreters have made it clear that these Hadiths and Qur'an verses do not mean that Allah's entity is present near the people, nor do they mean that it is present inside their neck vein. On precise analysis it becomes clear that it is a manifestation of Allah's wisdom and power. There are scholars who have the opinion that it is the angels who are referred to as ‘nearer than the neck vein'. Nevertheless, neither the Qur'an nor the prophetic words upholds the Hindu Adwaitha philosophy that the Almighty Creator's entity is spread throughout the universe.


Since godly entity is beyond human inference, how can we know and understand Him? The holy Quran directs man to brood over the blessings He gifted us and to realise His qualities thereby knowing Him. Quran introduces Allah through adjectives that spread light over His characteristics. Through these information that the Quran puts forward, it is possible for anyone to understand His characteristics within his intellectual boundaries. Verily, ‘Know Allah', means to know His qualities. His names and qualities proclaim so clearly that he is the sole deserver of all forms of worship. Thus, indeed, anyone who understands Allah in the form put forward by the Quran can never attribute worship to anyone or anything other than Him.

 â€œAnd Allah's are the best names, therefore call on Him thereby, and leave alone those who violate the sanctity of His names; they shall be recompensed for what they did.”(Qur'an 7:180)

Considering Allah as ‘the one with out attributes' is not in way with the Qur'anic teachings. It introduces Allah as the one in which all the good qualities are completely and perfectly blended. But godly qualities are incomparable with the human qualities. Since man is a mere creation, his qualities are limited as well as bound by time-space continuum. On the contrary, Allah, the creator of time and space is the processor of boundless qualities. The Quran verses 


“And there is none comparable unto Him” (Quran 112:4) and 


“There is nothing like unto Him” (Quran 42:11) refer not only to His entity but also His qualities. Certainly, none of His creations can equal Him in virtues. 

Qur'an and Hadiths enlighten us with many holy names of Allah;the names that emphasis His love and kindness; the names that manifest the acme of His power.

Certain names of Allah stated in the Quran are:

Arrahman (The Beneficent), Arrahim (The Exceedingly Merciful), Al Malik (The King), Al Khudoos (The Pure), Assalam (The One who is free from every imperfection, the saviour), Al Mu'min (Guardian of Faith), Al Muhaymin (The Guardian), Al Aziz (The Mighty), Al Jabbar (The Compeller), Al Muthakabir (The Majestic, The Supreme), Al Khaliq (The Creator), Al Bari' (The evolver, The Designer), Al Muswawir (The Shaper of Beauty), Al Gaffar (The great forgiver), Al kwahhar (The Dominant), Al Wahhab (The Bestower) Al Fathaah (The Judge), Al Aleem (The All-knowing), Al Assamee' (The All-Hearing), Al Basweer (The All-Seeing), Al Lathweef (The Gracious), Al Khabeer (The Aware), Al Haleem (The Forebearing), Al Adweem (The Magnificent), Al Gafoor (The All-Forgiving), Assukoor (The Grateful), Al aliy (The Most High), Al Kabeer (The Most Great), Al Kareem (The Generous One), Al Mujeeb (The Responder to Prayer), Al Waasee' (Theinfinite, the all embracing) Al HakeemThe Perfectly Wise Al Wadood (The Loving One), Al Majeed (The Most Glorious One), Al Haq (The Truth;), Al Wakeel (The Trustee), Al Matheen (The Steadfast), Al Waliy (The protector), Al Hameed (The Praiseworthy), Al Muhyi (The Restorer, The Giver of Life), Al Hayy (The Ever Living One), Al Qayoom (The Self-Existing One), Al Ahad (The One), Asswama (The Independent), Al Awwal (The first in existance), Al Aakhir (The Last), Adwaahir (The evident), Al Baathwin (The Hidden), Al Muthaalee (The Supremely Exalted), Al Birr' (The Doer of Good) Athawwaab (The Acceptor of Repentance), Al Afoow'  (The Forgiver) Arraoof (The Compassionate) Al Jaami' (The Gatherer), Al Hadee (The Guide), Rabb (The saviour)

Qur'an and Hadiths depict many holy qualities and acts of Allah. It is needless to mention that all the qualities and acts exist in its most complete and perfect sense in Allah. Based on these qualities and acts several names can be inferred for Allah.

Narrated abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, “Allah has ninety-nine names, i.e. one-hundred minus one, and whoever knows them will go to Paradise.”(Sahih Muslim)

From this prominent Hadith, we understand that Allah has ninety nine names. From other reports we get an idea that the number of His holy names is not determined. A Hadith quoted by Imam Tirmidhi, Ibnu Majah and Hakim reports the ninety nine names as such. This report is in fact a weak one. Prominent scholars comment that these names are derived from the qualities and acts of Allah that the Qur'an and the Hadith depict. They also comment that it is sinful to deduce names for Allah that He did not reveal to us. However all scholars are united in the opinion that Allah's names portrait His power, kindness, empathy and much more. Those perceiving Him through these names will certainly know the true Creator in the right sense and can never offer worship to another one. 

Quran and Hadiths enclose several references on the physical as well as entity attributes(Swifath). It is important to understand that His entity attributes like knowledge, life, power, sight, hearing, face, hands, talk, sovereignty, magnificence, eminence, self-sufficiency or kindness and His physical attributes like occupied the throne, descend, astonished, laughed, cheerful, loved, hated, enraged, played tricks etc  are all incomparable, unequalled and unique. The right way to grasp these qualities of Allah mentioned in the authentic scripture Qur'an and Hadiths is to realize that they belong to Allah in a form that is most apt for His nobility. Rather, their denial (tha'thweel), comparison with the qualities of His creations (thashbeeh), figurative comparison (Thamdheel), their alteration (Thahreef), assigning extra forms or explanations (Thakyeef) are all astray. In addition, Allah's qualities have to be accepted as qualities itself rather than organs(thajseem).

Since the Quran and Hadiths reveals Allah's swifaths to us, it is not right to comment that we are ignorant about Him. Yet, the actual forms of the swifaths (Kaifiyath) are not revealed. This knowledge lies solely with the Almighty. For example, verses mentioning that Allah ascends the throne are not incomprehensible or of unknown meaning. But we are ignorant of how He ascends and so it is right to grasp that He ascends the throne in a manner that is most apt for His nobility which is unknown to us. This is the path set forward by the Prophet and followed by the pious ancestors in understanding the qualities of Allah. Rather, we, one among a billion creations of Him, possessor of limited knowledge and narrow logic should not dare to interpret the Ultimate One's qualities. All those who have dared it have resulted in the popping up new religiousdoctrines. 

Assigning Godly qualities to anyone other than Him and assigning those attributes to Him that He does not possess are both far from the way of monotheism. Such allegations have led to the decline of mankind. The concept that God is present everywhere is the best example for this. In this concept, Godly entity, which actually exists beyond the universe, is brought inside to spread the misconception that every earthly object possesses some kind of divinity. By assigning god this quality that He does not possess, its spokesmen have wandered ultimately astray in the concept that the universe itself is divine. While this concept has paved way for worshipping stones and idols, it has rejected His actual qualities and assigned Him those which He does not possess. Sticking firmly on to what is taught by the scriptures will, indeed, keep man on the right track. 

Those who dared to step beyond for self annotation of His qualities have deplorably ended up rejecting the presence of the almighty God. The Adwaitha philosophy goes on as ‘All qualities have limitations. Thus God is devoid of qualities. If so, He cannot create. Then where is the universe from? It is God Himself.” This has exposed how the obstinate who gave self explanations of the almighty have pathetically ended up in the denial of His existence. 

He, Allah is the owner of boundless and unsullied qualities. It is impossible to measure His qualities with our senses which are limited. Humans can opt for nothing other than accepting the qualities that the Quran and the Hadiths pointed out as Allah's. These qualities exist in Him in a form that is complete and most perfect. Their comparison with the qualities of His creations as well as self explanations will lead us astray. History holds record that all those who have gone beyond the understandings of the followers of the Prophet have got entangled in rationalism and finally ended up in doctrinal decay rejecting the existence of God Almighty.


Islamic perspective enlightens two categories of truth- the creator and creations- Allah, the creator and the rest His creations. Nothing in this entire universe can equal the creator. Allah's entity is supreme and ultimate; He is the unrivalled and the unique; The invincible and the infallible; The extremely powerful and the All knower; He is the noble creator of the whole universe; The one on whom every creature depends, yet, He depends on none; The most gracious, the most merciful; Full of virtues and the complete. Yet, the creations are also reality, which completely depend on Him for existence. 

Islam stands apart from the Adwaida philosophy, which considers this world as an illusion. The world that we live in is, indeed, real. It has a beginning as well as an end. Quran proclaims the existence of a creator whose dignity is praised by every single thing in this world. 

“Whatever is in the heavens and earth exalts Allah, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”(Qur'an 57:1)

Allah is the only one who is the protector of everything and He will exist forever. It is right to say that He is the ultimate truth (Al Haq). But this does not negate the existence or reality behind worldly phenomena. Quran verses reveal that all worldly phenomena do exist and depend on the Almighty creator. It is not mentioned anywhere in the Quran that this world is an illusion (Baathwil). The following verse from the Quran is criticized to be in accordance with the Adwaida philosophy rejecting the reality of this world.

“All this is because Allah, He alone, is the Truth and all that which they call upon beside Him is false. Surely Allah, He alone, is All-High, Incomparably Great.” (Qur'an 31:30)

In fact, this verse does not deny the reality behind the existence of this world. Instead, it denies the deserving of prayers and praises to everything and every being other than Allah. Quran clearly quotes that this world is not an illusion. Instead, it is created by the almighty Allah for a definite and essential purpose. The following verse is said to be repeated by the pious who ponder over Allah's creativity.


 â€œOur Lord! You have not created this in vain.”(Qur'an 3:191)

The ‘illusory world' concept is pointed out by the Quran as rejection of the truth behind the creator.


“And We did not create the heaven and the earth and what is between them in vain; that is the opinion of those who disbelieve then woe to those who disbelieve on account of the fire.”(Qur'an 38:27)

This verse alone is sufficient to prove that Qur'an stands far apart from the Adwaitha philosophy. 

The concept that this world and its creator are united rather than separate entities as well as the Adwaida philosophy of ‘illusory world' is two sides of the very same coin. Islamic viewpoint in this matter, too, is made crystal clear by the Holy Qur'an. It teaches that Allah's entity stands unique and separate from that of His creations. He is not a mere power assimilated in His creations, pervading in everything.  He is beyond this universe. His knowledge and power encircles every minute as well as massive phenomenon. Neither the atomic throb nor the course of the planets goes beyond the knowledge circumference of Allah. Allah is above all time space limitations and His characteristics are beyond that of a substance. As a result, His power pervades over this vast universe. 


“Whatever is in the heavens and the earth declares the glory of Allah, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; He gives life and causes death; and He has power over all things. He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things.”(Qur'an 57:1-3)

Everything in this world is Allah's creation. The creator is indeed a separate entity different from the creations. Every creation including the human soul stands entirely distinct from the creator. 

The term ‘Doonillahi' refers to ‘those other than Allah'. Since Quran stands against ‘Doonillahi', it is accused of joining hands with the Adwaida philosophy preaching the ‘illusory world' concept and that God alone is the one with entity. The term ‘Doonillahi' is used over 70 times in the Quran. It is used with the meaning those other than Allah for over forty tomes. The other references are ‘Doonirrahmani', ‘Doonika', ‘Doonina', ‘Dooni'. Yet, in none of these situations has Quran rejected the entity of anyone other than Allah. Accepting the entity of every animate thing, Quran rejects the deserving of praises, worships and prayers by anyone other than the Almighty Lord. Some verses also serve as a warning for those who have accepted people or objects instead of Allah as their saviors. Let us go through some of the verses referring to the term ‘Doonillahi':


“And there are some among men who take for themselves objects of worship besides Allah (min doonillahi), whom they love as they love Allah, and those who believe are stronger in love for Allah.”(Qur'an 2:165)



“And whoever takes the Shaitan for a guardian rather than Allah (min doonillahi) he indeed shall suffer a manifest loss.”(Qur'an 4:119)


“They will not find for themselves besides Allah (min doonillahi) any protector or helper.”(Qur'an 4:173)


Say, “Do you worship besides Allah (min doonillahi) that which holds for you no [power of] harm or benefit while it is Allah who is the Hearing, the Knowing?”(Qur'an 5:76)


Say, “Indeed, I have been forbidden to worship those you invoke besides Allah (min doonillahi).”(Qur'an 6:56)


“And do not insult those they invoke other than Allah (min doonillahi), lest they insult Allah in enmity without knowledge.”(Qur'an 6:108)


“Surely they took the Shaitans for guardians beside Allah (min doonillahi), and they think that they are followers of the right.”(Qur'an 7:30)

All these verses and many more perfectly reveal that Islam does not reject the entity of any animate thing. Instead, it denies worship to anyone other than Allah. 

While Quran denies worship to anyone or anything besides Allah, it also denies worshipping anyone or anything along with Allah. The usage ‘Ma'allahi' refers to ‘along with Allah'. This usage is a proof that Quran accepts the entity of others. If Qur'an was of the opinion that Allah alone is the one with entity, then it wouldn't have used the phrase ‘those along with Allah'. Have a look at certain verses using ‘MaAllahi'. 


“And never call upon any other deity side by side with God (Ma'Allahi). There is no deity save Him. Everything is bound to perish, save His [eternal] self. With Him rests all judgment; and unto Him shall you all be brought back.”(Qur'an 28:88)


“And do not set up with Allah (Ma'Allahi) another god: surely I am a plain Warner to you from Him.”(Qur'an 51:51)


“And that the mosques are Allah's, therefore call not upon any one with Allah (Ma'Allahi)”(Qur'an 72:18)


“Do not associate with Allah (Ma'Allahi) any other god, lest thou find thyself disgraced and forsaken.”(Qur'an 17:22)

These verses obviously accept the entity of others but reject the deserving of worship to anyone other than Allah. 

Another phrase used in the Quran worth mentioning at this point is ‘Gayirullahi' which means ‘those other than Allah'. This phrase is used to refer to the creations in many situations in the Holy Quran. This usage, too, underlines the fact that Quran accepts the entity of others. Here are some of such verses:


“Will they not, then, try to understand this Qur'an? Had it issued from any other than Allah (Gayirullahi), they would surely have found in it many an inner contradiction!”(Qur'an 4:82)


“Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah (Gayirullahi), and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows.”(Qur'an 5:3)


Say: “”Is it other than Allah (Gayirullahi) that you order me to worship, O ignorant ones?”(Qur'an 39:64)

We cannot spot any verse declining the entity of anything other than Allah. While Quran admits the entity and greatness of others, it makes clear that their existence is completely dependent on the creator. In addition, the Holy Quran emphasizes the fact that none other than Allah deserves worship. The ‘illusory world' concept actually paves way for polytheism.  Their argument, ‘No one other than God has entity', has finally led to the belief that ‘Everything that has entity has the essence of God' in it and gradually resulted in worshipping everything with entity. 

‘Creation… A misfortune that afflicted Lord Brahma… The world itself wouldn't have come into existence if that mistake could have been avoided…'So is the belief of the promulgators of the ‘illusory world', Advaida concept. According to Paul, due to the mistake of the first man, the whole creations were immersed in evil (Romans 5:12). This is the belief that the Christian church is established on. According to this concept, every activity and effort that man puts on the nature will lead him away from the path of the Creator. 

Islam stands different from both these concepts. The world is God's creation and a gift. Everything that is established in this world is according to His decision. Creation is not an error from the part of the Almighty. Instead, he created everything with perfect prior planning for a definite and significant purpose. From the gravels on earth to the cluster of clouds in the sky; from the sub atomic particles to the solar system; from amoeba to the blue whales; every minute as well as massive objects are created with a definite aim. 


“Not for (idle) sport did We create the heavens and the earth and all that is between.”(Qur'an 21:16)

The personality of man stands distinct from that of every animate as well as inanimate thing. A very noble purpose is hidden behind the creation of man, the caliph of the earth. He Possess supremacy and manageable abilities… The only creation capable to utilize this world as well as to influence nature… Distinct from every other creation that exists completely in the way of nature…The only creation endowed with freedom and responsibility (Amanath)…How true is the Islamic perspective that man is the possessor of distinct as well as peculiar entity.


“We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it;- He was indeed unjust and ignorant.”(Qur'an 33:72)

When Islam refers to man as the caliph of the earth, bestowed with ‘Amanath', it means that while every object travels as per the will of the almighty, man is granted the freedom to choose or reject the right path set by Allah. He is granted the freedom to choose his own destiny-if his gifted potential is utilized for good, he will be provided a good ultimate destination while if he uses his gifted abilities for wrong, his ultimate destination will be wretched. 

Without man, who is gifted with creativity and ability to enjoy beauty, everything on earth and the earth itself would be meaningless. But the beautiful earth and the living things in it came into existence far beyond the creation of human. A millennium passed by before the creation of humans on earth. The earth constituting minute percentage of the universe underwent various transformations. Even in the absence of man, the existence of earth is purposeful. This further underlines the hollowness of the Adwaida philosophy, which states that the existing world is only an illusion of the human mind. A definite purpose underlies the existence of earth and that is beyond human analysis. The world is an existing reality rather than an illusion of the mind. 

The theory of physics which states that human experiments would adversely affect the sub atomic particles is interpreted to support the ‘illusory world' concept.  This interpretation possess no pulp since the theory of uncertainty only mean that it is impossible for man to completely study the sub atomic particles. This theory questions the overconfidence of man who thinks that he has every ability to discover the whole universe. The theory does not question the reality behind the existence of the universe. 

Islam teaches that every creation of Allah possesses relative entities. Creations possess entity separate the creator. But this entity is dependent on the creator. This can be compared to that of a painter and his painting. Without the painter, painting will not be created. But the entity of the paintings is different from that of the painter. Thus, every minute as well as massive object has its own existence, their entity being entirely different from that of the creator. Their existence is relative rather than infinite. They can exist only due to their dependence on their creator. But the creator Allah needs none for refuge


Every creation in the universe is in search of an instigator.

Man is no exception to this fact. He seeks the cause behind every phenomenon and every occurrence. There isn't a single phenomenon or particle that is absolutely self-explanatory to

be beyond all quests. Without excluding even a minute object from atoms to constellations, man is in search of a cause behind everything in the universe. On discovering it, he turns further more curious and strives to discover the cause behind what he 

has already discovered. This persistent investigation is not infinite. It eventually leads to the Almighty Creator, who is the Ultimate and the Absolute – the One True God. He is the final destination of all enquiries and quests. In fact, every object in 

this universe, however small or big, demands a reason. Thus, 

certainly, Almighty God, who is beyond all quests and does not demand a reason should be remote from this world and should be different from all that is created. Islam refers to thistranscentendal entity, which created and sustains each and every 

minute as well as massive object of the universe, as Allah.

In Arabic, the word ‘Allah' signifies the entity which is responsible for the creation and perpetuation of each and ever minute as well as massive substance and the various phenomena in the entire universe. Anyone who ponders over the existence of himself or of anything that he sees around him will certainly realise the presence of His existence. Anyone who ponders over the existence of the mastermind, who sways the atoms and sustains the constellations, will realise the truth of His existence.

However, Allah whom the Qur'an introduces is not solely a spirit or a blind reason or a mere form without an entity. Indeed, it is beyond the capabilities of man to interpret the physical 

nature of the entity of Allah. The Almighty alone can disclose His own characteristics to us and He did disclose it through the Holy Scriptures. Yet, the objects that we see around us,those that exist entirely due to His creation, reveals to a certain 

extent, His characteristics and His intentions.

The other terms that we use to refer to the Almighty, like ‘God' in English, Khuda in Urdu, do not possess a meaning

equivalent to that of the Arabic term ‘Allah'. The terms ‘God'

or Khuda take the meaning ‘that which is worshipped'. The

Arabic term holding similar meaning is Ilah. Anyone who is

being worshipped can be referred to as Ilah. Etymologists differ

in their opinion regarding the origin of the word ‘Allah'. Some

demand that it is Mushtaq (word derived from another word)

and others say that it is Jaamid (original word unique by itself).

Both the opinions are quoted below. Some scholars opine that

the term ‘Allah' was formulated when the common name Ilah

is preceded by the article Al. Thus ‘Allah' is Al-Ilah which

means, ‘the One, who alone is worthy to be worshipped' or

‘the One True God'. Those who disagree with this prescribed

origin of the word ‘Allah' have many reasons to quote. One

among them is that if ‘Allah' is a combination of Al and Ilah,

we cannot use the phrase Ya Allah (Oh! Allah) according to the

Arabic grammar rules - only Ya Ilah can be used. For example,

we use the word Al-Rahman (The Merciful) to allude to Allah.


But when Ya (Oh!) is used, the correct usage is Ya Rahman


(Oh! Merciful) and not Ya Al-Rahman (Oh! The Merciful). But

since we use Ya Allah (Oh! Allah), it means that Al is not

separate in the word ‘Allah'. Also, we break the rules in Arabic

to pronounce the word ‘Allah'. Again, if it is a non Arabic

word adapted into Arabic, it cannot have three vowels

(Harkath). Thus many scholars are of opinion that the word

‘Allah' is neither Arabic nor foreign but local to all languages.

All these opinions are from highly renowned scholars and none

of these opinions goes beyond the Islamic principles.

Nevertheless, the term ‘Allah' is used to refer to the One True




Allah is the creator, controller and sustainer of each and


every object the He created. He is omnipotent and omniscient.

‘Allah' is not the title assigned to the worshipping body of a

particular race or particular tribe. But He is the true God of

everything and every person irrespective of his nation, language

or tribe. Different languages use different names to refer to the

creator. Going through the Upanishads, we realize that

Parabrahma and Paramathma are the words used in Sanskrit

to refer to the All-Powerful creator. The Old Testament uses

the following words to allude to the creator: El, Elohim, El

shaddai, El Elyon, Adonai, Yah, Yahweh (Jehovah).



Since none of Jesus's (peace be upon him) commandments


are available in his own Aramaic language, it is impossible to

know how he used to refer to the Almighty Creator. Yet, biblical

scholars are of opinion that he used to allude to Almighty God

as Elohi.



It has already been mentioned that the Qur'an uses the term


‘Allah' to refer to the Creator of the entire universe and that

this title holds the meaning ‘the real one who deserves to be

worshipped'. There are scholars who comment that there is

not even a single word, in any other languages, to equal the Arabic term ‘Allah'. Whatever be the fact behind it, the Qur'an

uses the term ‘Allah' to refer to the real God and it doesn't

indicate any bias towards any particular race. The Qur'an

introduces Allah as the creator, the conservator and the

controller of the Muslims, the Hindus, the Christians, the Jews,

the Parsees and of every other human being. He is the creator,

the sustainer and the protector of the black and the white people,

the men of the West and the East, those who belong to the

upper caste and the lower caste. He is the Lord of all creations.\


“Allah is the Creator of all things and He is the Guardian


and Disposer of all affairs.”(Qur'an 39:62)

“Such is Allah, your Lord; the Creator of all things, there

is no Allah save Him. How then are ye perverted?”(Qur'an


“For Allah, He is my Lord and your Lord: so worship Him:

this is a Straight Way.”(Qur'an 43:64)


“To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the


earth: How can He have a son when He hath no consort? He

created all things, and He hath full knowledge of all things.

That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator

of all things: then worship ye Him: and He hath power to

dispose of all affairs.”(Qur'an 6:101,102)


This term ‘Allah' that the Qur'an uses to refer to the creator


is not coined by the Qur'an. This term has been in use among

the Arabs even before the prophet hood of Muhammad(S). The

Arabs were polytheists worshipping Latha, Uzza, Hubal and

many more dummy gods. They never considered these dummy

gods as Allah. Instead, they considered them as mediators for

recommending their needs to Allah. The Holy Qur'an

underlines the fact that they used the term Allah to allude to

the sole creator and all powerful God.

“If thou ask them, who created them, they will certainly

say, Allah: How then are they deluded away (from the

Truth)?”(Qur'an 43:87)


“If indeed thou ask them who has created the heavens


and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon (to his

Law), they will certainly reply, “Allah”. How are they then

deluded away (from the truth)?”(Qur'an 29:61)

“And if indeed thou ask them who it is that sends down

rain from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth after

its death, they will certainly reply, “Allah!” Say, “Praise be

to Allah!” But most of them understand not.” (Qur'an 29:63)

Say: “Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord

of the Throne (of Glory) Supreme?” They will say, “(They

belong) to Allah.” Say: “Will ye not then be filled with awe?”

(Qur'an 23:86, 87)

Say: “Who is it in whose hands is the governance of all

things,- who protects (all), but is not protected (of any)? (Say)

if ye know.” They will say, “(It belongs) to Allah.” Say: “Then

how are ye deluded?” (Qur'an 23:88, 89)


It is evident from the history of the Arabs that they used the


name Allah to refer to the sole saviour of the whole world.

Prophet Muhammad's father, who had passed away to months

before his birth, was named Abdullah – meaning ‘slave of

Allah'. Indeed it is due to his trust in Allah that Prophet

Muhammad's grandfather, Abdul Muthalib named his son

‘Abdullah' (slave of Allah). Abbas (R) also named his son

‘Abdullah' even before accepting Islam as his religion. Abdullah

ibn Abbas was another famous Companion of the Prophet (S).

Likewise, we can come across many holding the name Abdullah

in the late period of ignorance and in the beginning of

Muhammad (S)'s prophethood. Thwalhathubnu Ubaidillah,

Abdullahibnu Salam and Abdullah ibn Jadaan are such familiar

names in Islamic history. Thus, it is as clear as a crystal that

the term ‘Allah' was coined neither by the Qur'an nor by

Prophet Muhammad (S).



Not only had the polytheists among the Arab disbelievers,


but also Jews and Christians referred to the actual god as

‘Allah'. In the Qur'anic verses mentioning about Jews who

considered Uzair (Ezra) as the son of God and about Christians

who considered Messiah (Christ) as the son of God, the term

used is Ibnullah which means ‘Allah's son'. Have a glance at

this verse:



The Jews say, “Ezra is the son of Allah “; and the


Christians say, “The Messiah is the son of Allah.” That is

their statement from their mouths; they imitate the saying of

those who disbelieved [before them]. May Allah destroy them;

how are they deluded? (Qur'an 9:30)


Even though Torah, Injeel and Sabur refer to the absolute


lord as Allah, the Christians consider Him as one among the

Trinity. The Qur'an verse commenting on this says: “They made

Allah one among the three”:

They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a

Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist

not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty

will befall the blasphemers among them. (Qur'an 5:73)


Another significant point to be mentioned here is that the


Arabic Bible, too, uses the word Allah to refer to the ultimate

God. Here is a reference from the Arabic Bible: Arabic Bible,

Gospel of John, Chapter 1, verses 1 - 5.

English Translation of the mentioned verses in the King

James Version of the Bible is as follows:

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with

God, and the Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning

with God. 3 All things were made by him; and without him was

not any thing made that was made . 4 In him was life; and the

life was the light of men. 5 And the light shineth in darkness;

and the darkness comprehended it not.”


The prophet was assigned to a community offering worship

to many Gods. He did not demand them to abandon every God

of theirs and to offer worship to the one whom he points out.

Rather, he called them to offer all worships to the one whom

they all agree to be the creator, controller and protector.


Ask them: “Whose is the earth and those who are in it?

Tell us if you know”

They will surely say: “Allah's.” Say: “Then why do you

not take heed?”

Ask them: “Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, the Lord

of the Great Throne?”

They will surely say: “Allah.” Say: “Will you not, then,

fear (Allah)?”

Say, “In whose hand is the realm of all things - and He

protects while none can protect against Him - if you should


They will say, “[All belongs] to Allah.” Say, “Then how

are you deluded?”

We have sent them the Truth: but they indeed practise


No son did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with

Him: (if there were many gods), behold, each god would have

taken away what he had created, and some would have lorded

it over others! Glory to Allah! (He is free) from the (sort of)

things they attribute to Him!

He knows what is hidden and what is open: too high is He

for the partners they attribute to Him! (Qur'an 23:84-92)


The truth about Jesus


Islam is a religion of pure monotheism, or, in other words, the worship of The One and only true God-know as “Allah” in Arabic. Islam is also a religion of many great Prophets and Messengers, one of whom is Jesus (peace be upon him), a man whose name is know in almost every household. A man highly respected and revered by two major faiths: Islam and Christianity. What does this man, Jesus, have to do with Islam ?


Jesus as a Prophet & Messenger


In Judaism, Jesus (peace be upon him) is denied as the Messiah. This is in stark contrast to Christianity, where he is worshipped as a deity, or the son of God.  Islam takes the middle ground and actually acknowledges Jesus as an honorable Prophet and Messenger of God, as well as the Messiah.  He is neither God nor is he part of a Trinity.


“[Jesus] said, ‘Indeed, I am the slave of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet.” Quran 19:30


Muslims view Jesus in the same way they view Prophets of God- highly respected  and loved.  To disbelieve in him or any other Prophet or Messenger within Islam, such as Moses, Abraham or Muhammed (peace be upon them), takes one out of the fold of Islam. Prophets are not worshiped, because doing so is an act for God alone, since it is He who created them and all that exists.


Jesus as god


The concept of Jesus being God or the begotten son of God I s inconsistent with the old testament, the  Qur'an and numerous passages within the New Testament.


As numerous Qur'anic verses clearly indicate, Jesus was not God, nor was he the begotten son of God, as it does not befit His Majesty to have children. Claiming that God has a son would mean to attribute human qualities and limitations to the All-Mighty, and God is far removed such imperfection.

“Lord and your Lord. So worship Him alone. This is the only Straight Path.” Qur'an 43:63-64


As an honorable obedient Messenger of God, Jesus submitted willingly to God's commands. As such, he was a “Muslim” – one who submits to the will and commandments of God.


The Miracles of Jesus


Jesus performed great miracles by the will and permission of God. One of his greatest miracles was that he was conceived with no father. He also spoke as a baby in the cradle to defend his mother against the children of Israel who accused her of fornication.


“He (Jesus) will speak to the people in the cradle and in manhood, and he will be one of the righteous.”  Qur'an 3:46.


Jesus also gave life to the dead, cured the leper and the blind-all by the will of God.


“Indeed, I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, that I design for you out of clay like the form of bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with God's permission; and I heal the blind and the leper, and bring the dead to life with God's permission and I inform you what you eat and what you store in your houses; most surely there is a sign in this for you, if you are believers.” Qur'an 3.49


The fact that Jesus (peace be upon him) performed miracles does not mean that he was anything more than a humble slave of God (Allah) and His Messenger, In fact many Messengers performed miracles, including Noah, Moses and Muhammed (may peace be upon them all) and these miracles only took place by the permission of Allah, so as to prove the authenticity of the Messenger.


Crucifixion  OR  Cruci-fiction ?


The Islamic perspective is that Jesus was not crucified, but rather raised up to the heavens. This point is further clarified in the following verses of the Qur'an;


“[The Jew] killed him not, nor crucified him, but the resemblance of Jesus was put over another man (and they killed that man), and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely they killed him not: but Allah raised him (Jesus) up (with his body and soul) unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All-powerful, All-Wise.” Qur'an 4:157-158.




The return of Jesus


Muslims believe that Jesus will reappear before the Hour, i.e. Day of Judgment, and descend back to earth.


God says:


“And he (Jesus, i.e. his descent to earth) shall be a known sign for the coming of the Hour (Day of Judgment).” Qur'an 43:61.


He will descent as a Muslim (one who submits to God's laws) and call others to Islam, rejecting those who took him as other than a slave and Messenger of the One True God. Jesus was born, will return and die, as a Muslim.




Muslims view Jesus in the same way they view all Prophets of God. They respect and love him dearly, however, they do not worship him, as worship is for God alone who created him and everything that exists. Jesus is not god, nor is the son of god, nor is he three entities in one.


God tells the Muslims to come to common terms and understanding between them and the People of Scriptures (Jews and Christians). He says:


“Say:'O People of the Scripture! Come to a word that is equitable between us and you: that  we will not worship anything except  Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another and lords instead of Allah.”  But if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to God].”


Qur'an 3:64. 

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The Financial Crisis, the Islamic Solution

This Book History of Economic Analysis, Joseph Schumpeter says that as far as economics is concerned the Middle Ages were desiccated and infertile. This is convincing, if you still believe in the myth that the wizards of European Enlightenment magically and single-handedly resurrected the dead science of philosophy, the empirical method, and all the arts from their ancient Greco-Roman crypts. The true story is the western historians of economics, much like their counterparts working on (or is it working over?) other branches of knowledge, systematically buried one little fact: The study of economics, like virtually every other area of scholarship, had its greatest advances in that seminally creative and superlatively human millennium, now reflexively dismissed as sterile.

The learning promptly inspired incredible leaps of real economic growth in the world. But, surprise, surprise: Underlying it all was not a deregulation of revealed beliefs in favor of a natural balance of self-indulgence - the solution constantly being preached at us - but rather a systematic universalizing of monotheistic principles of ethical economics that profit the common man. It is the human connection with its religious conscience, and not unrepentant materialism unleashed, that ushered in this golden era of local gain and growth from a new global compact of finance and trade. It is a material achievement the world has yet to repeat – and for obvious reason. This period of unparalleled increase and relative international peace coincided perfectly with the moral leadership of Islam and Muslims in the world, and the containment of the Dark Aged distortions of religion in Europe.

The correlation of the ascendance of Islam, a morally driven world economy, and the prosperity of the far-flung, culturally and religiously diverse localities that participated in it makes perfect sense. The proliferation of trade and fair spread of wealth (like the other arenas of life) absolutely require the moral refinement of man, a civility directly linked to a shared religious consciousness of principles in which all people can believe, be secure in, and benefits from. Thus at the core of this era of surplus resides divine revelation, the Qur'an and the Sunnah, or way of the Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alaye wa sallam. The first speaks explicitly to the moral imperative of money. The latter details the kinds of transactions that institutionalize economic injustice. Being just in business, therefore became an essential part of belief, as the shunning participation in its excessive forms. This means that economics became part, not only of sacred knowledge, but of spiritual practice. This made Muslims, at the level of their local economies, both engines of economic justice (they were profoundly engaged in examining economic arrangement and instrument, which made them incredibly financially creative), and also formidable bulwarks against the spread of economic oppression (local economies and the cultures never lost their productive autonomy). This made local growers, craftsmen, and merchants always able to insist on or prohibit certain ways of dealing, giving them first – line responsibility for how they made their profit and guaranteeing them the immediate power not to participate, even in inadvertently, in victimizing others by unfair transactions or to corporate in creating veiled systems of slavery.

Underlying these Godly economics is a single, immutable standard: No financial transaction must ever, under any circumstances, be allowed to lead to exploitation. S. Todd Lawry, professor economics at Washington University, has studied the economy of Arabia at the time of the Prophet sallallahu alaye wa sallam, and shown that a robust and transparent financial system existed there, based on the light of the Noble Qur'an and Prophetic traditions. The title of this important work Medieval Islamic Economic Thought: filling the Great Gap in European Economics puts this in rare and clear perspective. In it he explains that for centuries the Islamic economic code served as the core of a just system of international transactions anchored in three principles: (1) All economic practices and instruments were to meet the test of being, first and foremost, simultaneously good for the common human being, the human community as a whole, and the earth upon which they lived. (2) Every transactional method must equate with moral refinement, understood as obeying God, valuing the individual, and enriching the poor. And (3) all means of financial and economic exploitation were treason, a betrayal of God, the individual, the society, and the commonweal of man.

Based upon these principles, Muslim philosophers developed solutions to inevitable economic complexities and specified instructions to ensure compliance with ethical economics in the light of the Qur;an and prophetic tradition. Lawry says plainly what Muslims have long known, the economists can no longer ignore the fact that it was these stalwart Muslim intellectuals who taught the world how to run decent trade relationship based on universal, moral codes of commerce.


"O you believe! You shall not consume one another's wealth by false means. But, rather, let there be trade with consent among your-selves. And you shall not kill one another (meaning here in pursuit of wealthy). Indeed, God is ever merciful" [4:29]. This Qur'anic commandment clearly and accurately underpins the moral bases upon which financial transactions should be conducted. Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, under-scored these principles in his instruction that trade had to simultaneously satisfy both seller and buyer to be lawful, and that this same principle of mutual approval and contentment is what validates employee-employer relationships.

From the 8th to the 13th century, it was the international trade of Muslims, based on the ethics of the Qur'an and prophetic tradition that taught the world how to structure fair business deals across cultures and geography while keeping all the individuals in the transaction chain consensually free. Calling it the Medieval Green Revolution, scholars like John Hobson hold the evolution of Muslim business transactions to be the first true globalization of trade, thought unlike today's global dealings, it put local trade and the individual grower, craftsman, and merchant at the heart oat the heart of the new prosperity.

Right from the primary generations after the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, there lived intellectual who, in the light of basic principles, defined changes in economic conditions related to the growth of the society. They also explained how Islamic laws should be put to practice in such circumstances. Among of these initial attempts are the economic fatawa (legal rulings) of Zaid ibn ali (122 Ah). The best of the economic analyses carried out during the time of the second generation, are the fatawa of Imam Abu Hanifah (150 AH), who scrutinized the complication related to the so called 'as-Salam' transactions of selling commodities on a predefined dated and a price based on a contract made earlier. In light of revelation, he drew out and clarified conditions for exdploitation-free As-Salam transactions. The fatawa of his contemporary ImamAbdul Rahman Al;-Qusai (156 AH) regarding laws of collective farming and protocol for partnership trading are also well-known.

Imam Malik (179 AH) ash-Shafi's (204 AH), and Ahmed Ibn Hambal were all great scholars who analyzed the financial problems of their times and gave religious instructions in the light of the revealed Texts. The extensive letter that Hanafi scholar Abu Yusuf (182 AH) wrote the Caliph Harun ar-Rashid about agricultural relationshiop and taxation systems known as Kitab al-Kharaj, itself became one of the major texts analyzing evonomics from an Islamic perspective.

????Other scholars of the early years contributed to Islamic economics,. For example, Muhammad Ibn Hassan ash-Shaybani (189 AH) wrote about household income and expenditure. Yahya Ibn Adam Al-Kharashi (200 AH) analyzed laws related to the public economic sector. Al-Qasim Ibn Salam (224 AH) wrote Kitab al-Amwal as an examination of socio-economic affairs and Islamic law. Abu'I-Hasan al-Mawardi (450 AH), author of 'Al-Ahkam as-Sultaniyyah' wrote about market laws, agriculture, taxation, a and the responsibilities of administrators in these sectors. Abu Muhammad Ibn Hasan assessed financial affairs related to agricultural land. Nizam al-Mulk (485 AH) researched real estate transaction systems in the light of the revealed Texts. Imam Al-ghazali (505 AH), author of Ihya Ulum al-Deen, wrote about government influence over economic growth. Abu Bakr Al-Kasani (587 AH) did a analysis of profit and loss in partnership trading, according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Many other known scholars taught that agriculture was more important than trading, and that therefore these things should also be considered in taxation directives.
Even Orientalists agree that Ibn Taymiyyah (728 AH) and Ibn Khaldun (808 AH), who lived in the 13th and 14th centuries, respectively, are the greatest intellectuals to have handled the theories and practice of financial transaction in Islam. Ibn Taymiyyah thought his various fatawa elucidated how the Qur'anic commandment "O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent" [4:29], could be made practicable in the market system of the 14th century. Ibn Khaldun, author of the Muqaddimah, or Prolegomena, praised as the greatest work on philosophic history by British historian Arnold Tonybee, is the person most eligible to be called the father of economics, according to I.M. Oweiss, in his aptly titled Ibn Khaldum, the father of Economics, Ibn Khaldun deals with a wide range of economic problems like price indexing, supply and demand of commodities, employment distribution, production, distribution and disbursement of wealth, wealth and the creation of private assets and economic growth, international commerce, population, public financial affairs, taxation systems, conditions required for agricultural growth, industries, employment and financial liabilities of administrators. It becomes evident from the narratives of the Muqaddimah how much importance the Muslim world attached to transparency in financial transaction, exploitation-free commerce, honesty in trade, and decent service-remuneration systems.

Muslim merchants crossed the world doing business that adhered to the instructions of Muslim intellectuals who analyzed economic orders in the light of the Qur'an and Prophetic tradition. It was these traders who scientifically taught the world how commerce could be done decently. It was Muslims who controlled the course of global commerce between the 8th and 13th centuries. They helped people by reaching agricultural produces from various parts of the world to where there was lack and by teaching them how to develop cultivatable land. It was Muslims who introduced the world to India's mango, rice, cotton and sugarcane. It was Muslims who spread China's citrus fruits and Africa's essential sorghum west and east, according to Andrew M.Watson's remarkable study "The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion," The Journal of Economic History.

In addition, it was the Muslims who manufactured agricultural machinery and introduced them to other cultures. These are the five centuries known as the Muslim green revolution, during which time usage of water reservoirs, dams, water mills, water flow machinery and norias helped farmers elevate and distribute water. Muslims also accurately recorded and made available to tradesmen an amazing catalogue of agricultural produce and the commercial zones of their origination and proliferation in Africa and Europe, according to Jairus Banaji in "Islam, the Mediterranean, and the Rise of Capitalism," Journal of Historical Materialism. These records turned out to be a virtual guide to European colonialism in the "enlightened" colonialism in the "enlightened" centuries.

Muslims traveled to the various known parts of the world for commercial purposes, and were almost universally welcomed, since they were known promoters of fair trade and local prosperity. No armies accompanied them, according to Subhi Y. Labib in "Capitalism in Medieval Islam," The Journal of Economic History, who observes that the first market economy was formed in the Muslim world. The core of that economy was the exploitation-free financial transactions based on the independent Dinar, a currency absolutely liberated from usury, representing a wealth based on Divine Law. At that time, trading companies, agreements, exchange documents, international trade relations, partnership trading, and active and passive partnership trading, and active and passive partnership trading all existed in harmony and in accordance with universal morality, free from exploitation. Producers and commercialists used to compete to make profits from this halal currency, and in finding more mutually profitable productive sectors.

The market economy system was one that maintained a precise perspective on matters like debt, repayment, profit, loss, turnover, gathering, circulation and spending of capital, and so forth. Regulations related to loans and repayments were fail-safe, free of interest, and, therefore, free from exploitation . Though trade, commission, vendors, brokers, currency, loans, profits, losses, trade agreements, and transactional documents all existed, there was no widespread exploitation, speculation, or gambling. This was due to the involvement of the political system based on precise divine teaching, at least when it came to commerce. Rare was the chance for indirect or hidden exploitations to gain a foothold in an interest-free financial order based on universal guidelines of monotheistic morality and an independent currency system. In short, it was the Islamic economic system that taught the world how international commerce should be conducted.

Commercial exploitation was started by European powers that acquired commercial rights from Muslims through deception and fraud. Colonialism is, in fact, a global history of deception, treachery, and persuasion by forced and vice. From the 15th to 19th century commercial endeavors in the world were largely been based on militaristic imposition of weaker, exploitable nations. The aim of business laws in the exploited world seems to be to legalize stealing from compliant rulers in either occupied or controlled countries. Modern economic science, in fact, begins its life as a rationalization at the time of colonization. It smells of the very blood of exploitation. All the laws of interest-based economics ultimately teach how to exploit people in stark contradistinction to the Islamic economic system that preceded it, which was overtly focused on the benefit and wellbeing of people. It has the fragrance of humanity. The Islamic economic order established on the foundation of divine teaching has as its open objective the happiness, advantage, betterment, and refinement of the worker, the wealthy, the employer, the entrepreneur, one and all.


Micro economics explains how financial affairs of the individual influence the society and state, whereas macro economics analyses how the financial integrity and laws influence the welfare and financial wellbeing of the individual. The analysis method of the former is from bottom to top; whereas the latter analyses matters from top to bottom. The Islamic economic perspective starts at the top. But unlike macro economics it does not begin with the society or state, but far above them, from the Almighty who created and sustains this whole universe. Everything in this universe belongs to Him, and it is to Him alone everything alone everything returns, the wealth and provision of each individual are all His gifts. Man only enjoys and experiences these gifts as blessing.

Man is expected to utilize the wealth that Allah gave adhering to His regulations. Man only has the holding rights of wealth. He is only a trustee to act according to what the actual Owner of wealth has said is the responsibility of those given its holding rights: "And let those who find not the financial means for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah enriches them of His Bounty. And such of your slaves as seek a writ (of emancipation), give them such writ, if you find that there is good and honesty in them. And give them something (yourselves) out of the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you" [24:33].

When man deals with the wealth given to him according to his own interest, he is sure to face its consequence. Some of the fallout he shall encounter in this life itself. But the actual outcome will be experienced in the Hereafter and how severe a penalty it can be! How one spent the wealth God granted him will have to be accurately accounted for before the One who gave the wealth. When produced and examined before the Lord who knows definitely and precisely about one's deeds and hidden objectives and intention of mind, nothing can be concealed, nor shall it be possible to get away with justification: "O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the wrongdoers" [2:254].

The core of the Islamic economic system is the belief that all the given wealth is the gift of the Almighty. It, therefore, must be transacted according to His rules, regulations, and instructions. Whatever of this is not duly observed will be accounted for before Allah. Islam denies both the liberalist perception that individual freedom is most important, and the socialist perception that the state decides how citizens should conduct themselves with their wealth. Islam teaches that the citizen and the state should all follow the rules and regulations of the Creators. Only then do individuals get actual freedom and does society experience creative evolution.

The basis of the liberalist perception that and individual has the right to transact according to his will and wish is the capitalist outlook that wealth is created by individuals on their own. According to the communist school of though, the citizen is robbed of his divine right to accumulate capital, which belongs to the state, or, more properly, to the collective. The concept of citizen's right over wealth is, to them, an illusion. Islam rejects both these viewpoints. God is owner, and delineator of all wealth's limits, transgression of which He Himself will judge and, if He so chooses, punish.

This morality serves as the backbone of the Islamic economic system. Those who have not accepted it cannot make the Islamic system practicable.


Secular and material ideologies envision man as a complex creature fashioned during the mysterious evolutionary cycle of matter. Islam given the lie to this.

Man is the Khalifah on earth. He is the unique living being having independent executive powers and authoritative liberties, whom God has endowed with all he needs to make use of the universe and influence nature. The word 'Khalifah' evokes all the designations of man on earth, like chancellor, successor, ambassador, steward, etc. Man is the only creature who can develop civilization by taking over the heritage of his predecessor and who can take up and execute and independent mission and represent his community as a whole. He has the ability to analyze acquired knowledge, compile it, reach new conclusions and examine those conclusions for truth. Because of this, he is able to advance knowledge beyond the sensory and achieve worldly improvement.

Yet is only those servants of god who are able to identify the Lord and Master through sensory knowledge, attain wisdom through analyzing it, sanctify themselves by living according to His commandments, and who seek to purify themselves and others whom the Qur'an designates as the ultimate successors, or stewards.


Human discover resources, refine them, and produce new commodities out of them. It is manual labor that acts to render the resources of creation useable or productive. Products of labor reach us as useful commodities. That means the generator of wealth is labor. If we deduct labor from any commodity in our possession, it will be merely a raw material or beyond our reach. Physical and mental labors are equally important. Civilization are built when both of them are combined. Human labor is essential for the existence and progress of mankind. The human species cannot survive without it.

Combined labor is more productive than individuals laboring on their own. When physical and mental labors are combined, technological growth is achieved and more products can be produced, though not necessarily of a better quality. To make more complex products physical are mental labors of a lot more people are required. What the entrepreneur actually does is unite these labors. The entrepreneur is one who organizes and utilize physical and mental labors to make the wealth available with him productive. He is the one who invests capital and uses his mental and physical faculties to make the conditions necessary for it to grow. The recompense he gets for that is the profit. Production does not happen by merely having laborers. Required conditions are also essential for it. In effect, the entrepreneur creates the required conditions. The truth is that he tends to labor more and endure much more mental stress than the laborers working for him.

The entrepreneur remains in labor and related mental stress all 24 hours whereas a laborer works only a designated portion of the day. The entrepreneur must get proper recompense for his superior efforts. And such is profit. The primary unit of the economic system is one which includes the labor, entrepreneur, profit, and wages, It is by refining this unit that Islam builds the foundation for the comprehensive growth of economy. The Qur'an indicates that whoever is healthy should engage in labor: "He it is Who has made the earth subservient to you (i.e, easy for you to walk, to live and to do agriculture on it); so walk in the path thereof and eat of His provision. And to Him will be the Resurrection" [67:15].

The laborer has the right to justifiable wages. Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhe wa slam, taught that preventing it is a sin and Allah shall not cause those who violate this to ultimate succeed.

The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said that Allah the Almighty said: "There are three whose adversary I shall be on the Day of Resurrection: A man who has sold a free man and has consumed the price. And a man who has hired a workman, has exacted his due in full from him and has not given him his wage" (Bukhari).

Production is an important as labor. While referring to agricultural produce, the Qur'anic an stresses the fact that it is the blessing of Allah. "Who has made earth for you like a bed (spread out); and has opened roads (way of paths) for you therein, and has sent down water (rain) from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation. Eat and pasture your cattle (therein); verily, in this are Signs (proofs and signs) for men of understanding" [20:53-54].


Trade is essential for products to reach people. The trader collects a variety of products from various places and delivers them to the consumer for a fee. He utilizes his wealth, intellect, and labor for this. His motivation is the profit gained from the business. But business is not inevitably profitable. There are chances of loss through faults in planning or unexpected problems. The trader is the one who takes the risk of loss and tries for profit. In society, circulation of wealth takes place through trade, Hence, trade itself is vitally important in economic science. The trader has the crucial mission of distributing (supply) goods according to the requirements (demand) of the society. And economic science is the study of individual and social processes affecting supply and demand. Islam allows and encourages trade. "Allah has permitted trade and forbidden Riba"[2:275]. The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said: "The honest, trustworthy merchant will be prophets, saints, and martyrs on the Day of Judgment" (Tirmithi).

If engaged in businesses that are not transparent, there is a chance of dissatisfaction for the trader or consumer after business is dome or agreements fulfilled. Therefore Islam has forbidden all non-transparent business dealings. Deals dome without accurate knowledge about the goods may cause discontent or difficulties. So Islam does not approve such dealing. The trader has the responsibility to ensure the quality and value of the commodity he sells. It is to clarify about this liability that Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, taught traders of foodstuff to inspect and measure before selling the items they buy.

Islam teaches that all kinds of unfair trade are forbidden. The consumer has the right to have clear knowledge about the goods he buys. Modern society has started to talk about consumer rights only in this century, nearly 14 centuries after the Prophet established this as the God-given right of every human being.

Business has to be cent-per-cent honest. Foul play in weights and measures has been condemned by god in the sharpest words. "No! Most surely, they (evildoers) will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day" [83:15].

Islam has forbidden all kinds of speculation. The rise and fall of market share is caused by speculation. These days, the media are full of news about people who went bankrupt and found solace only in suicide. Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, prohibited all businesses based on speculation. Selling of baby camel in the fetal stage, transactions based on luck calculated by throwing stones, and trading of fruits before ripening were speculation-based trading that existed in his time. The ahadeeth show that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, banned them all.

The consumer has the right to withdraw from the deal if the goods bought do not have the promised utility of quality. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, taught that there is no problem in returning a sheep one has purchased, for example, if, say, the seller had not milked it for an abnormal span of time before selling it, in order to show that it had higher yield per milking than it actually did. In such a case, it is clear that the purchase becomes irrevocable only after the buyer has milked it and been satisfied that its output accords with the representations of the seller.

Thus Islam not only enshrines accurate business laws but establishes clear consumer protections, as well. Our preceding example shows that consumers have the right to gain the promised value of the goods they purchase or to return the goods. Not until 1962, did President John F. Kennedy deliver the first American promise of consumer protections, later known as the "Consumer ill of rights." These included the right to products that do not harm, the right to choose, the right to register complaints, and the right to accurate information. Nearly a quarter century later, the United Nations added four sub-clauses to these.

We have already seen that Islam delivered these rights as divine revelation from its establishment. Yet it went beyond this, as well. In addition to regulating production and trade, it also put forth definite rules on the consumption side, the most important of them being that there must not be over consumption. "And give to take kinsman his due and to the poor and to be wayfarer. But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily, the spendthrifts are brothers of the devils, and the Devil is ever ungrateful to his Lord" [17:26-27].

It is part of the test of life that people in one place will experience scarcity while people in another have abundance. But extravagance, which necessarily leads to waste, is not at all natural. Americans alone waste $75 billion in food every year. Of the roughly 350 billion pounds of foodstuff that reach its affluent populace in food grains, milk, fruits and vegetables, nearly 100 billion of it gets tossed, much of it for the sake of ostentation (itself a major sin). Remember that Americans and Europeans, who together comprise just 12 percent of the world's population, consume 60 percent of its total production of foodstuffs. Hotels and clubs, establishments star-rated in accordance with their showiness, waste fully a third of this. If only 20 percent of the food squandered were methodically reused, the prevailing problem of poverty in the world could be seriously redressed.

But Islam is not talking only of conserving foodstuffs, though this is a prime concern. The developed countries throw away serviceable goods of kind category. In 1998, the per capita consumption of oil in developed countries was 4,600 liters. In developing countries it was 670, and in India, a mere 360. While these figures have undoubtedly changed, it is not clear that its ratios have. This means that a citizen of a developed country burns up something on the order of 13 times the oil used by a citizen of India.

There is a further lesson here. Abundance in one place causes scarcity in another. Dr. Amarty Sen mentions this in a study related to the famine in Bengal. It is particularly notable that the Qur'an says "spendthrifts are brothers of the Devils," [17:27], criticizing extravagance. The most prominent cause in the charge sheets of all existing financial crimes in the world in ostentation or lavishness. It spoils individuals, families, the state, and all.

The intestines of every human being have certain limits. Food cannot be consumed beyond that limit. The lifestyle of eating to the maximum and wasting the rest for the sake of indulgence is creating serious health problems in the new generation of America. In 2004, 23.6 percent of school students in America were overweight and 8.2 percent are obese. In Europe those numbers are 15 percent and 4.6 percent, respectively, In Africa school-going children and struggling with diseases and other miseries related to starvation. This means that capitalist countries, and the resource-rich nations they deprive, are all having a tough time because of inequities and health problems created by consumerism. "Spendthrifts are brothers of the Devils." What a proper Qur'anic statement!

Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said: "Satan is present with any one of you in everything he does. He is present even when he eats foods. So if any one of you drops a mouthful he should remove away any debris from it and eat it and not leave it for the devil. And when one finishes (food) he should lick his fingers, for he does not know in what portion of his food the blessing lies" (Muslim).

It is not population explosion but over consumption that is behind all ecological problems. The earth has enough provisions for all organisms. The existence of these provisions gives to creation all that it needs, There is an argument to be made that, other than man, no organism is capable of over consumption, in the sense that all creation gives back to the ecosystem as much as it takes. Thus whatever the population, their existence does not destroy the environment. Therefore, it need not be burden for the earth to accommodate a thousand times the present population, provided each one consumes no more than what is essential.

But that is not the case with over consumption, which takes from the earth many times what it gives back. This disturbs the rhythm of the ecosystem and wrecks the environment. All our climate, water, and soil problems are caused by over consumption, destroying the balance created by Allah. Otherwise surely there would not be a problem, whatever the population. Allah said: "And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the Balance, in order that you may not transgress (due) balance. And observe weights with equity and do not make the balance deficient. And the earth, He has put down (laid) for all creatures. Therein are fruits, date palms producing sheathed fruit stalks (enclosing dates), and also corn, with (its) leaves and stalk for fodder, and sweet-scanted plants" [55:7-12].


What Islam teaches is that the ultimate authority of wealth is Allah and man is given its holding rights. Whoever has the wealth has the right to decide how it should be spent. But that right has to be exercised subject to the divine rules and regulation. Otherwise, he will encounter difficulties in this life and risk severe punishment in the Hereafter.

The right over the wealth each of us lawfully earns belongs to its earner with the exception of what is due the poor. This belongs to them, having been invested for them by God with us. As to this right, Allah has admonished us: "And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others. For men there is reward for what they have earned. (and likewise) for women there is reward for what they have earned, and ask Allah of His Bounty. Surely, Allah is Ever of All-Knower everything" [4:32].

The Islamic viewpoint is that both men and women are entitled to earn wealth and the right over the wealth so earned belongs to whoever earned it. The western-European world began institutionalizing this right of women only in 1870. Until then, the husband had authority over a wife's wealth, earned, invested, or inherited. Only after the intense campaigns by a woman named Ursula Mellor Bright (1835-1915) was the law of Married Women's Properties Act' instituted in Britain. The act said that "the salary, wealth and all earned by a woman independently is treated as hers." In 1882, it was amended to read that "the complete right over all of her wealth belongs to herself." This means that capitalism had to be forced to cede the rights God gave to all women more than 12 centuries before.

Islam rejects the socialist school of thought, which obstructs human advancement with the reprehensible idea that all earned wealth belong to the state. Nor does Islam recognize the morals of the liberalist philosophy which make the individual believe that the wealth he earns is created by his ability alone, and thus he may spend it as he likes. Islam teaches that the wealth given to one belongs to his or her respective selves, but it one's responsibility to spend it adhering to the rules and regulations of the God who gave it. Between socialism which obstructs advancement and liberalism which turns it into madness, Islam accepts personal increase, but regulates it in accordance with authentic divine guidance. What Islam teaches is that personal wealth is not evil, but its spending should adhere to the restrictions of Allah, who blessed us by providing it.

The Islamic directive is that however rich a man may be, after his death the inheritance should be shared among all the heirs according to their rights. Islam does not permit the code of "Manu," which allows only the eldest son to be the inheritor. The Qur'an also amends the Biblical law that only male offspring are entitled to inheritance, (Deuteronomy 21:15-17). The Qur'an teaches that both male and female have predetermined rights over inheritance. "There is a share for men and a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related, whether, the property be small or large – a legal share" [4:7].


Not all people in society will be financially self-sufficient. Indeed, according to modern economic practice, almost no one can or shall be. The system depends upon our dependence and the necessary insolvency of steady stream of unfortunate ones. Loans, defined as an asset provided by one who has wealth to one who does not, are a legitimate instrument to bridge the gap between our material objectives and our personal wealth. A loan is the wealth taken for a period from one who has money by another who does not have money for a particular need. Giving a loan is a great social service and, therefore, Islam has encourage it. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said: "when a Muslim lends money twice to another Muslim, he will be rewarded for giving charity once" (Ibn Majah).

The Islamic perspective is that loan affairs should be transparent, properly documented, and confirmed by witnesses. The longest verse in the Qur'an is related to loaning "O you who believe! When you contract a debt for a fixed period, write it down. Let a scribe write it down in justice between you. Let not the scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him. So let him write. Let him (the debtor) who incurs the liability dictate, and he must fear Allah, his Lord, and diminish not anything of what he owes. But if the debtor is of poor understanding, or weak, or is unable to dictate for himself, then let his guardian dictate in justice. And get two witnesses out of your own men. And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women, such as you agree for witness, so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other can remind her. And the witness should not refuse when they are called (for evidence). You should not become weary to write it (your contract), whether it be small or big, for its fixed term, that it more just with Allah; more solid as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves, save when it is a present trade which you carry out on the spot among yourselves, then there is no sin on you if you do not write it down. But take witness whenever you make a commercial contract. Let neither scribe nor witness suffer any harm, but if you do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So be afraid of Allah; and Allah teaches you. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything" [2:282]

The borrower is liable to pay back the loan within the fixed period. Islam treats not paying back loans as a great sin. Even if the borrower becomes a martyr in the path of Allah, his loan will not be excused. Not repaying a loan is a serious offense. If someone borrows without the intention of repaying and fritters with it, Allah shall severely punish him. In this world and the Hereafter. Not repaying a loan when one has money is a felony. Such people ought to be punished.

Giving loan is a service done by one who has wealth. Treating a service as a means to take advantage perverts the social perspective on service. Social services are not business. It is not something to be done expecting worldly benefit. Its aim should be to cradicate the dilemmas of the struggling one and thereby please the Almighty and be eligible for His reward. Islam disapproves of the scheme of turning a service into exploitation. For this reason, Islam loathes interest and courts it as great evil.

"Those who consume Interest will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Satan leading him to insanity. That is because they say: 'Trade is but the like of Interest', whereas Allah has permitted trade and forbidden Interest. So whosoever receives an admonition from his Lord and stops consuming Interest, shall not be punished for the past; his case is for Allah (to judge); but whoever returns (to Interest), such are the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein" [2:275]

All the prophets taught their people to stay away from interest. The Qur'an states clearly that any people who, in spite of the admonitions of the messengers of God, consume interest will be punished. "…..and for their taking (of) usury, thought they were forbidden to do it; and for their consuming the wealth of the people by false means… We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a most painful torment [in the Hereafter]" [4:161]

The Old Testament of the bible denounces interest strongly. From the Nicea Council, the first synod of the Christian world, to all the synods conducted till the 16th century, it was decreed that usury was forbidden. Church historian John Noonan records that Interest is something criticized by popes, prohibited strongly by three ecumenical councils and protested by bishops. First Protestants and then Catholics have deviated from this stand. Sharp comments against interest may be seen even in Vix Pervanit, the circular sent by Pope Benedict XVI to the bishops in Italy on 1 November 1745. Later this prohibition gradually faded away. It is lamented in Rerum Novarum, the circular published by Pope Leo XIII addressing Catholic bishops on the 16 May 1891, that usury still exists and perturbs people.

When banks became; prevalent and people took the interest system, the Church also followed. The Church, thought expected to lead in morality, has a history now of following behind them. In the end, not only have they accepted interest, they became its beneficiaries and propagators. Here's the New Catholic Encyclopedia: "Nevertheless, the 12th canon of the First Council of Carthage (345 CE) and the 36th canon of the Council of Aix (789 CE) have declared it to be reprehensible even for laymen to make money by lending at interest. The canonical laws of the Middle Ages absolutely forbade the practice. This prohibition is contained in the Decree of Gratian, q.3, C. IV, at the beginning, and c.4,q.4,c.IV; and in 1.5, t. 19 of the Decretals, for example in chapters 2,5,7,9,10 and 13. These chapters order the profit so obtained to be restored; and Alexander III (c.4, "Supereo", eodem) declares that he has no power to dispense from the obligation.. Chapters 1,2 and 6, eodem, condemns the stratagems to which even clerics resorted to evade the law of the general councils, and the Third of the Lateran (1179 CE) and the Second of Lyons (1274 CE) condemn usurers. In the Council of Vienne (1311 CE) it was declared that if any person obstinately maintained that there was no sin in the practice of demanding interest, he should be punished as a heretic (see c. "Ex gravi", unic. Clem., "De usuries", V.5)….

"The Holy See admits practically the lawfulness of interest on loans, even for ecclesiastical property, thought it has not promulgated any doctrinal decree on the subject. See the replies of the holy Office dated 18 August, 1830, 31 august, 1831, 17 January, 1838, 26 March, 1840, and 28 February, 1871; and that of the Sacred Penitentiary of 11 February, 1832. these replies will be found collected in "Collectio Lacensis" (Acta et decreta s. conciliorum recentiorum); and in the "Enchiridion" of Father Bucceroni.)"

The phenomenon Islamic history witness as to interest is quite the opposite. Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, was dispatched to a society submerged in interest. Many of those who embraced Islam attracted by monotheism were dealers of interest. It was by invoking theism and thought of life after death in their minds that Islam seeded its great revolution. It lifted people up from evils including interest. It was in the final speech associated with his Hajj ceremony that Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, finally declared interest as forbidden. He announced total exemption of the interest money owned to Al-Abbas (his uncle), and, in this was, wiped the evil called interest out of the society. The declaration forbidding interest that has had strongest influence in history reads as follows: "Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital is yours to keep. Your will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Al-Abbas be waived." When this declaration was made, nobody in the interest-flooded society uttered a word. Al-Abbas did not head protestations thinking of the huge sum of interest owed to him being lost. They bowed to what the Messenger, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, ruled based on Allah's teaching and liberated themselves from this evil. For the past 14 countries Muslims lived undertaking interest-free financial transactions. It was not behind people that Islam followed. Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, led at the front. He started by forbidding the interest owed to his uncle and the Companion trailed behind him. And billions of Muslims follow him even today.

Islam stand against interest is very strict. And that stand is not to associated with it. What Islam teaches is that giving and taking interest and doing documentation for its deals are all evil. Jabir said that Allah's Messenger, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, cursed the accepter of interest and its paper and one who records it, and the two witness, and he said: They are equal (Muslim).


Since financial transactions take place through currency, the currency system wields one of the most decisive influences on the wellbeing of society. In light of Islamic law, which requires all transactions to be transparent and free from treachery, the currency system also has to be comprehensible to all and resistant to all kinds of exploitations. When assets are exchanged based on currency, knowledge about its required with those who exchange it.

The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, enlightened believers to stay away from all kinds of exchanges susceptible even to traces of interest.

The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said: "the selling of gold for gold is Riba (usury), except if the exchange is from hand to hand and equal in amount. Similarly, the selling of wheat is Riba (usury), unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount. The selling of barley for barley is usury, unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount. And dates for dates is usury, unless it is from hand to hand and equal in amount" (Bukhari). He taught in simple terms how to do interest-free exchanges in a barter system. He said: "Gold is to be paid for by gold, silver by silver, wheat by wheat, barley by barley, dates by dates, and salt by salt, like for like and equal for equal, payment being made hand to hand. If these classes differ, then sell as you wish if payment is made hand to hand" (Muslim).

During his era, the silver Dirham of the Persian and the gold Dinar of the Romans were the coinage used in Arabia. These two coins are seen in the prophetic instructions related to zakah, which means Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, had accepted these as currencies.

Dinar and Dirham were used as of the official currencies during the tenure of Caliph Umar. In light of discovered documents from that era, the value of the Dinar has been calculated as 4.3 grams of gold, and the Dirhams, as 3 grams of silver. It is clear from the above mentioned words of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, that the proportion of the values of the Dirham to the Dinar was 20:1. It was during the era of Caliph Uthman that Muslims started making their own coins. During the time of Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan, in 75 AH, the Islamic State officially minted both Dinars and Dirhams. These coins had inscriptions of "La Ilaha Illa-Llah" and "Al-hamdulillah" on one side and the same of the Caliph and minting date on the other.

It was gold and silver coins that prevailed in the Muslim world for 12 long centuries. These coins enabled them to trade beyond the oceans and in domestic markets alike. The world accepted these coins and having integrity of weigh and value on their own. And they developed the exchange system based on them.

Financial theories presented by the Four Imams and intellectuals like Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibhn Khaldun were founded on gold and silver coin. Extensive analyses related to the coinage system can be seen in Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddimah.

It was during the colonial age that paper currency began to be used in the Muslim provinces. As in other countries, paper currency was representative as based on precious metals and thus the practice of its prevalent use was originated. And since paper currency could genuinely represented actual wealth in an interest-free financial system, none of the scholars had significantly opposed this change. They were made to understand that representative currency it what prevails all over the world, is most convenient for transactions, is based on gold and is quite essential for trade exchanges with other countries in the world.

The history of currency in modern Muslim countries is instructive. The story of Saudi Arabian coins begins with the minting of the Qirsh, a coin made of cupronickel, an alloy of copper and nickel, by order of King Andul Aziz in 1928. In 1935, the government minted silver riyals officially. In 1963, they minted bronze coins called Halalahs. The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) was established inn 1953. From then on 'SAMA' used to prepare and distribute bank notes of denominations 10,5 and 1 Riyals for the convenience of Hajj pilgrims who arrived there. Though made for pilgrims, these bank notes were widely used for transactions in Saudi Arabia.

The subsequent printing of bank notes of denominations 1,5,10,50 and 100 Riyals began in 1961. They quickly became widespread and, thus, were withdrawn from pilgrims in 1964. To internationalize the currency, it had to be brought into adherence with the eighth clause of the articles of agreement of the International Monetary Fund, in order to enter the Saudi Riyal into the Bretton Wood Treaty of 1944, wherein it became subject to the international regulations for currency exchange. With that, like the currencies of countries that recognized the Bretton wood Treaty, the Riyal also came to be based on the American Dollar.

Even then there was contentment that the Dollar was gold-based.

But the situation changed in 1971. With the removal of the dollar's gold basis by the announcement of President Nixon on August 15th, the age of fiat currency had dawned. The term 'fiat' means that a currency has no value on its own, and represents no asset. It has nothing but and assurance given by its government (a fiat). It rests on nothing. Fiat currency is absolutely the reason behind the unprecedented financial exploitation we are witnessing today.

It is the responsibility of scholars to examine in light of the scriptures how much credibility we can give to transactions based on fiat currency, which has no value of its own. When viewed in the light of Islamic laws that says there should be transparency in transactions and no room for exploitation, it is doubtful that there can be even a theoretical 100 percent validity in transactions conducted using fiat currency, which, again, holds nothing but the assurance of a state.

Even the validity of long-term loans based on inevitably deteriorating fiat currency is uncertain. An interest-free loan given in fiat currency will almost always turn out to be a loss for the loan provider. What is the point, then, of asking those who have money to do service by which they shall almost certainly endure loss. In truth, the idea of fiat currency itself against Islamic Principles.

Today the word has already realized the necessity of creating a news financial order based on entries (currency) having intrinsic value. Mahathir Muhammad, the former prime minister of Malaysia, suggested such a system in 2001, but there has never been proper follow up. If countries that Allah has blessed with resources become ready for such a change, it will likely mark the end of their own financial dependence and go a long way toward extracting the fangs of imperialism from the jugulars of the poor nation. It would be a giant step toward resolving the economic crisis from which the world is now reeling, and the beginning of the march toward a crisis-free economic system.

Once any currency system returns to being gold-based, people will almost instinctually begin seeking to deposit their money in gold-backed and, therefore, interest-free, banks. Since the investment of the depositor will be dealt with on the basis of gold, he or she would not have to worry about the depreciation of wealth. Software programmed to denominated respective currencies according to current gold value will eliminate any technical problems. In these days of electronic money and online banking, it is comparatively easy to make all deposits gold-based. Institutions like the Islamic Development Bank can do much to make this kind of situation practicable.

The world is demanding such a change and the theoretical source for that change is with Muslims. And only Muslims can organize it in a manner useful to all people. Moreover, Allah has also allotted to us more than sufficient wealth and the human numbers to accomplish this, if we had the will. If we become ready for the path, and alternative of incalculable moral and economic value to the current global plutocracy shall at once be opened to the people of the world, and there can be no doubt about their response.


However attractive the economic vision of socialism my appear on paper, aide from the few who can connect with it face to face, it cannot be seriously considered as a practical, universal solution. The only thing Marxism and its socialist variations have ever accomplished on a large scale is a grand assumption, that all the suffering, poverty, and incurable diseases in a society shall cease to exist with the elimination of personal wealth. Marxism has never been able to recommend any scheme to end the difficulties of people enduring them.

The capitalist promise is not much better. Other than vaguely imagining that human destitution shall automatically disappear when the myth of "progress" is realized through the free market, its best spokespersons are unable to tell us how the existing free market system will be useful to the destitute in the interminably grinding interim.

Here also Islam stands out. The natural products of its financial imperatives is the disappearing of hardship. The distinction of Islam is that beyond reminding with admonitions that genuinely help the poor, I is able to present an economic program that makes such help, not possible, but inevitable.

Zakah, obligatory alms, is one of the five pillars of Islam. A person who has wealth-defined tightly as anything above one's immediate reeds-cannot be a Muslim without giving zakah. The Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said: "Islam has been built on five [pillars]: testifying that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah (alone) and the Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying the zakah, making the pilgrimage to the House, and fasting in Ramadhan" (Bukhari).

Lexically, zakah means growth and refinement. Zakah is the refinement of wealth, and this refinement causes financial equilibrium and social progress; thereby also cause the development of the individual and the society.

It is the financial greed that leads men to grave sins most of the time. And zakah is a financial sacrifice. Therefore the zakah system throws away wealth-worship and selfishness and cultivates altruism and benevolence. See a Qur'anic verse that introduces zakah as an act that cleanses and refines man.

"Take alms from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it, and invoke Allah for them. Verily, your invocations are a source of security for them; and Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower" [9:103].

????Zakah is not a mere virtuous act as a charity that the rich gives to the poor; it is the right of the poor in the overall wealth circulated in the society. It is stated in the Qur'an as "For the beggar who asks, and for the unlucky who has lost his property and wealth (and his means of living has been straitened). And those who believed in the Day of Recompense" [70:25-26]. Also while mentioning the characteristics of a Muslim and explaining about agricultural produce, the Qur'an says: "And it is He Who produces gardens trellised and un-trellised, and date palms, and crops of different shape and taste (their fruits and their seeds) and different (in taste). Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof (their zakah, according to Allah's Orders, 1/1 th or ½ th) on the day of their harvest, and waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not Al-Musrifun (those who waste by extravagance) [6:141].

If the society becomes willing to organize and distribute zakah based on divine commands, the problem of poverty could be almost completely eliminated from the world. Historical events of zakah being distributed to a neighboring country when there was nobody eligible, confirm this fact.

Today capitalist countries have also started to ralize that a social order cannot go ahead without considering the poor. Their social security programs are meant for the poor who do not fall into the financial order. It is estimated that even in America where people troubled by over eating live on one side, there are about 35 million deprived. Social security programs are for helping and rehabilitating them. While trying to help the poor through such programs, the question of a capitalist citizen as to 'why help them?' has no answers at all with the state or the ideology guiding it. And it is not a theoretically proven or mathematically established "fact" that the poor should be helped for the sake of helping the free market.

Islam holds water here also. The very One who provides wealth has also stipulated that the poor have the right to a certain percentage of it, and they should be given it. When one follows this stipulation, his only aim is to please the Creator who provided it and to win entry in Heaven and His blessing. Since the only aim is to please Allah, this alms and other charity is given expecting nothing at all from whomever it is given to. Thereby not only does famine vanish, but social equilibrium is realized also, a social equilibrium that is essential for wealth to flow through the society without restraints. It is to generate this flow that modern economists are talking now about schemes of social equilibrium.

Since the very inspiration of a Muslim to give zakah is the faith in Allah and the desire to please Him, small are the chances of any kind of exploitation coming into Zakah. Rather, it is social security in its truest, pristine sence. A real flow or wealth is generated in just this way. Thereby refinement and economic advancement are engendered. It was through just this kind of program that Muslim society became self sufficient to the extent that none were left to take zakah, during the reins of the Caliphs Umar Ibnul Khattab and Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz.


There is a point that has to be made here. A good economic order can't come into being in a vacuum. It needs a suitable social order, a real community that believers in upholding what is right. The fall of Soviet Union is a prime illustration of this connection. It showed that when you go against man's economic nature all Allah created it, the social sphere cannot sustain itself. The Marxian vision of the social order naturally improving when the economic system is freed from personal wealth was, after all, baseless.

Today the world is experiencing the disasters created by the capitalist assumption that the main responsibility of the society is to facilitate the tranquil flow of wealth. Here is where the Islamic economic system really stood out, for Islam teaches us that social transformation has to come through refinement of the individual. So it is the responsibility of the social system to create a strategy for the development of individuals who, in every generation, renovate society. The viewpoint of Islam is that the change of convention has to come about through the change in people's state of mind. It stipulates that once there is a change from conventional worldliness to spiritual transcendence through individual refinement, divine laws are to be observed, and a social order based on justice and brotherhood is to be established.

In an Islamic society, the rulers and the ruled are all believers in the supreme authority of Allah and the world beyond. The belief that all deeds in this world shall be scrutinized in the Afterlife is what regulates the lives of both leaders and followers. This seriously diminishes the commission, if not the motivation, for criminal activity. Since the lives of the people in a transformed Muslim society are dominated by their belief in Allah, who knows both the secret and the overt, there is a far greater predisposition to sincerity in judiciary matters and even politics. Hypocrisy cannot easily emerge in force among a sincerely transformed people. So the chances of immorality in politics, perhaps the most tempting of worldly realms, is at least well checked, societies members, led by the free opinion of the religion's most proven 'ulama, constituting a potentially overwhelming counterbalancing force. The basic attempt of the rulers and the citizens shall be to achieve the blessing of God, becoming His earnest servants. This is the kind of social set up wherein justice prevails.

Only by creating an exploitation-free economic order and righteous social order, can the world emerge from the cataclysmic crises it is facing today. Such an order, one that offers serenity, peace, and satisfaction to all of humanity, cannot be formed without the light of divine guidance. This requires revelation that can stand up to the test of being unalterably divine. Only the Qur'an and the Sunnah meet this criterion.

These scriptures contain solutions and directives for all the crises no sweeping humanity. And though not the exclusive property of Muslims, nor relegated to their merely human protection, they have certainly been placed by God squarely in the realm of our individual and collective responsibility for transmission and implementation. In other words, the charge of Muslims is to make them understood, practicable, and to uphold them with all our hearts, all our souls, and all our might.

This is no utopian pipedream. History itself has made clear that Islam's economic solutions and directives are practical, based on the human welfare of the most vulnerable among us, and bound to universally better the dire human condition. It is time the Muslims declared to the world, like Joseph, who by divine revelation, foresaw the coming famine: "Appoint me [High Minister] over the treasuries of the land. I am a good keeper, and well-knowledgeable [in these affairs]" [12:55]. If people blessed by Allah with knowledge of the principle sources of revelation, numbers, power, wealth, and humility in the face of His coming Judgment become ready for this, it will be the beginning of one of the great transformation of human history, for which man is surely due. It will be the beginning of an exploitation-free economic order and humane, locally driven globalization, returning man to his original post-Edenic state of collective stewardship and individual freedom.

The Roots of Financial Crisis, An Islamic Analysis

BANGLADESH-BORN AMARTYA SEN wrote The Argumentative Indian in 2005, seven years after winning the Noble Prize in Economics. His purpose seems to have been to condemn the communal violence fueled by the new Hindu cultural chauvinism as foreign to Indian history and identity, and to advocate for a return to native traditions of intellectual pluralism and public debate. Yet many of his arguments remain thoroughly relevant in our contemporary world, India and elsewhere.


He contends, for instance, that the global re-emergence of the value of “doing one's duty”  an ethic that ought to be recognized  cannot be blind to its own obvious outcomes. Priority must be given to the moral consequences that may follow from carrying out the responsibilities that we feel or that society tells us are our “just” communal obligations.


Sen concludes that the virtue of any economic argument or principle is really determined by its moral merit, that is, by its ultimate consequences for people and creation. He warns us, as well (like none but an honest economist in our wealth-conscious times can) that many financial theories that do good on paper may well be detrimental to society when put into practice.


My contention is that what Sen is saying ought to be extended to the economic principles practiced by most of the world today. Economists and the rest of us should evaluate the worth of these policies not exclusively by their detached numerical accuracy, but first and foremost, by the morality of their fundamental impact on people's lives. To put it another way, our economic theories and practices should be judged on the basis of the quantum social welfare they generate. Do they help or hurt the most vulnerable among us? Do they free the common man and woman or enslave them? Do they stimulate human integration in society and creation while preserving the life, liberty, and individual choice and dignity of man, beast, and earth? Or do they corrode the structures of communal life and erode the natural, delicate balances that God set for all things?


When we assess generally accepted modern economies by this standard, we must accept that it has been an utter failure. The mathematical and statistical equations of its conjectures may all be accurate. But their definitive results have led to catastrophic social instability, egregious exploitation and persecution, and suffering on a scale so steep and pervasive as to be at once unfathomable yet unmistakable.

According to the date provided by the experts from our affluent capitalist countries, that results of the accumulating debt mandated by the present economic system is nearly 7 million dead children in underdeveloped countries every year due to preventable starvation and an unconscionable lack of proper medical facilities. That's about 20,000 needless deaths of helpless human being every single day. Let's put that in emotional perspective. Hundreds of thousands of hearts come to lifelong grief over the loss of little, loved ones with every sunset, their lives inhumanly shattered such that no sunrise promises the light. Imagine the death of your own child for no other reason than his or her life is held cheaper than some banker's silk tie.


The same system is also the culprit behind the single greatest period decline in history of the only thing it purports to be focused on increasing Per capita income. Take Somalia, for instance, the most obvious nation in need of wealth-per-person rise. The average Somali's income, already small, has shrunk by nearly a third, from about $891 to just $600 within a span of 40 years. That's the very period in which the worldly philosophies promised heaven on earth for all people if we just ejected God from the world. Do we wonder, then, at the emergence of piracy in so economically plundered and unsustainable a country as Somalia?


The astounding fact that many times mores people have been killed in the last century than in all prior human history combined is the single most devastating indictment of the nature of today's political-economic system. Nor can this be statistically airbrushed away by population arguments.


Whether politicians and finance men face up to it or not, we have reached the terminal stage of modern economics. Hope is now lost that the system can continue providing disproportionate prosperity even to the fraction of favored people who live in the developed nations.


An ever increasing crime rate, an alarming rise in the number of failed families, a surge in the number of beds in psychiatric wards, a growing Mafia culture, and steep decline in moral and ethical values across the board are all byproducts of a financial system � not only unable, but � not structured to do anything substantial for the welfare of the very societies that have propagated it in the world for their own lopsided benefit.




????ON TOP Of these mounting social ailments comes the meltdown of the financial markets and dreaded recession. The loud cries of those who have lost their homes, jobs, and luxuries fill the already disturbed social air.


????Investment experts and economic scholars, till recently gloating over the accuracy of their predictions and projections, now claim shell shock in our present precipitous economic plunge. Most still account for it as an unforeseeable "Black Swan Event," an improbable occurrence of extreme social impact. There is still little acknowledgement that modern political and economic material philosophies long ago merged in the interest of the few. The arrogance (or sycophancy) of our specialists' and authorities' blatant excuse-making merely makes it all the more painfully clear that our current global financial system was in no way ever meant for the ultimate welfare of its end victims, mankind and the fellowship of creation. These were merely its productive wealth reservoirs, to be trammeled, channeled, and drained.

????If it is humanity's welfare that is the legitimate criteria for evaluating a humane economics, if it is the development of a social atmosphere conducive to a contented and upright society and a healthy earth that is the legitimate end of economics, then the global wealth system �not merely propounded, but �actualized by Islam prior to the modern materialist period definitely scores full marks.


????The main capital ascendant systems-communism and capitalism, and their hybrid socialism-have all been exposed as illusory. The 1991 collapse and break up of the Soviet Union and its aftermath has proved that the 70 year experiment of communism failed to produce its declared goals of social justice, welfare, and equality. Indeed, communist intellectuals themselves now affirm that the socialist principles were nothing but a Marxian utopia.


????Capitalism has likewise shown itself a futile control over the capital human vices of lust, greed, gluttony, sloth, wrath, envy, and pride, Inequality, the retreat of civility, and alienation, have in fact, come to define its societies, deadly sins vaunted in them to the status of virtues. Capitalism has not been able to provide the safe haven it promised, now not even to those who championed its theories.


????It is here that the relevance of Islam in the modern world is reaffirmed; or rather it ought to be by Muslims, if we care for others. A number of examples in our history show that when Muslims implemented this religion's economic principles, their social structures engendered widespread happiness and contentment among the common folk of their societies and that of others-and that is the true mark of a successful economic strategy.


????Rich or poor, Muslims and non-Muslims enjoyed incredibly fulfilling spiritual, familial, and civic lived in Dar al-Islam, along with a standard of social security that no pluralist society since has replicated for more than handful of generations. Both employed and employer joined hands for the welfare of all. Nations from the Scandinavian Vikings, to the Indian Ocean peoples, to the Pacific Islanders, to the Sub Saharan African traded freely and securely under the international protections of an Ummah, not necessarily politically unified, but with important overarching principles that bound its peoples together.


????It is because we have before us the illustrious examples of these societies, wherein people lived in prosperity and total harmony under the shade of Islam's economic system that we ought to be able to say out loud and in public, without hesitation, that Islam deserves serious examination from the world's economic and social scholars, in light of the volatile state of global security and the dire need of people today.


????During the caliphate of Umar ibnul Khattab, for instance, Mu'ath ibn Jabal was sent to Yemen to apportion and distribute zakat. When he had done his duty, he returned one-third of the collected zakath to Madinah. This infuriated Umar and he said: "I have send you to Yemen not to collect jizyah (a poll tax on non-Muslims). I send you to collect zakath from their rich and distribute it among their poor." To this Mu'ath responded: "I wouldn't have send anything to you if there were even a single deserving person left here to receive zakah."


????The very next year, he send fully half of the collected amount to Madinah, and in the subsequent year the whole amount collected was send to Madinah. He explained the situation to Umar ibnul Khattab saying: "There, i could not find a single person who deserved to be paid anything."


????A similar situation prevailed during the time of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, the celebrated Umayyad Caliph, often called the Fifth Righteous Caliph. Within the short period of 30 months, he transformed his far flung lands of governance, stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to the Steppes of the Caucuses, into dominion that were one to describe as having no person deserving zakah, on would nearer the truth than not. This is another instance of a state genuinely operating for the welfare of the common people because of its fastidious concern with implementing the principles of wealth, its uses, and distribution, as Islam prescribes. This government for the commonweal of the people.


????Such occurrences do not happen by accident. They take governance established on the firm foundations of divinely revealed principles with meticulous transparency and accountability. In fact, the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, prophesied the establishment of such Muslim states functioning in behalf of the people by way of the practical application of Islamic laws. Harithah ibn Wahb al-Khuza'i narrated that heard the Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, say: "O people! Pay zakah [while you have the chance], for a time shall, indeed, come when one will carry his zakah from place to place and find none to take it. Whomever he shall request to take it will reply: 'Had you brought it yesterday, I would have taken it. But today, I am not in need of it'" (Bukhari).


????A situation in which there is no one to receive zakah does not signify that people have no suffering or hardship, Rather it ensues from a generalized condition in which all such problems are solved satisfactorily within the system itself. Our examples express this. They are circumstances in which all community members attained self-sufficiency in their financial aspects, in accordance with the altered outlook of civil society and the genuine needs of contented life.


????There were employers, laborers, rich and poor people. But the disparities did not lead to major forms of exploitation and oppression. They built a welfare state, in the best sense of this now much-maligned term, to meet everyone's need, through their combined efforts and mutual cooperation. Everyone in the society succeeded in attaining self sufficiency without depending on the nation to share any of his or her burdens.


????It is instructive to remind that this means debt was eliminated among the Yemenis in three years, and among the people under the rule of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz in just 30 months. And lest anyone suspect that people succumbed to abnormal states of asceticism, know that under the latter, every poor, unwed young man was given mahr, the bride's dower payment, to marry, Every farmer was offered interest-free, long-term loans to improve his land. And non-Muslims were given special funding exclusive to them so that they would recognize their sacred worth and preserved place in the eyes of the Shari'ah.


????If we agree with Amartya Sen, among a growing cadre of economic and social thinkers, that the real yardstick by which an economic system is to be measured in its ability to create an environment in which all citizens attain satisfaction and fulfillment, then we should learn thoroughly about that divinely ordained system which has been historically proven to be successful in this. We should, moreover, think deeply of how those principles can be put into practical use for the betterment and welfare of humankind.


????Unless the visionaries, intellectuals and statesmen of the world display the tolerance and liberalism to accept this truth and recognize the universality of these divine principles of wealth, there shall be no end to the existing malignancy of the financial markets. Unless the world moves in this direction � the direction of divine justice universally applied � there shall never come into existence a society that truly acts and inures to the benefit of all its people.




????THE MEETING OF the G-20 leaders as the Summit held in Washington
November 14-15, 2008, headlined as Financial Markets and the World Economy, attempted to discuss the root causes for the emergency of the serious challenges to the world economy and financial markets. The leaders endeavored to itemize these underlying reasons for the economic plague threatening the world. Here's conclusion:

"During a period of strong global growth, growing capital flows, and prolonged stability earlier this decade, market participants sought higher yields without an adequate appreciation of the risk and failed to exercise proper due diligence. Policy-makers, regulators and supervisors, in some advanced countries, did not adequately appreciate and address the risks building up in financial markets, keep pace with financial innovation, or take into account the systemic ramifications of domestic regulatory actions. Major underlying factors to the current situation were, among others, inconsistent and insufficiently coordinated economic outcomes."


The Summit resolved to take strong remedial actions to put a halt to the crisis. The "strong and significant actions" planned to stimulate economics are as follows: Provide liquidity, strengthen the capital of financial institutions, protect saving and deposits, address regulatory deficiencies, unfreeze credit markets, and try to ensure that international financial institutions (IFIs) do provide critical support for the global economy. The Joint Statement made at the end of the meeting bore a not of cautious optimism. But thus far the hopes of these leaders is not yet being translated into a reality that adequately relieves the people.


Time, perhaps, will tell us differently, but that hope seems as risky as the financial practices that got us here: Growth of the housing bubble, easy credit conditions, sub prime lending predatory lending, deregulation, increased debt burden or over-leveraging, financial innovation and complexity, false credit ratings for the big corporations, boom and collapse of the shadow banking system, and a commodity bubble are the causes of the current financial crisis, according to the economists of the capitalistic countries. But are these the symptoms or the root causes?


Egyptian economists Samir Amin, John Bellamy Foster, Editor of the Monthly Review (New York), and John Bogle, founder of the famed United States investment management company The Vanguard Group all say that the current financial crisis is merely a symptom of another, deeper crisis, which is the systemic crisis of capitalism itself.


If not, one wonders why capitalism exhibits crises so often? The Bankers Panic of 1907, The Great Depression of 1927, the Black Swan Event of 1987 (including the Savings and Loan Crisis of 2000 are all major and Loan crisis), and Dot Com Crisis of 2000 are all major economic crises that hurt the world economy. And all were more or less made in the USA, the flagship of capitalism.


The economists and statesmen of the United States and other G20 nations are trying to analyze the present crisis and find a solution to it, standing within the parameters of their present system. This in itself could make them unable to see the root causes of the problem. Unless they see things in a broader perspective, they will not be able to fully realize the origins of the malady that has afflicted the world.


It is here that insight into Islamic economic principles in relation to the present economic principles in relation to the present economic crisis becomes relevant. Islam is the only religion in the world that has comprehensive economic beliefs of its own. We have already stated that the principles established as part of its way of life have already proved successful in practical reality.


To clearly ascertain the roots of the present problem and the ways to solve it, we have to learn from Islam's two major principle sources, the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Many Muslims economists claim that learning the economic system in Islam can also help us appreciate, at least in part, the anxiety America and the West have shown with regard to Islam. And this, is turn, explains why Islam's financial remedy is not allowed a reasonable chance even in the economically ailing Muslim world itself.


The upshot of this antagonism is this: Islam as an economic system would not only break the grip that capitalist nations have secured over the considerable wealth and resources of Muslim lands, it would reorder material morality throughout these societies, which would necessarily upend the status of their social-power elites. Further, it would cause a major reconsideration of the goals and purposes of life throughout these societies, which would lead, inevitably, to massive policy and social model toward the destiny of the previous system it has come to most resemble: The Feudal system.


Here are just a few things that a serious consideration of revealed economic morality would end in our capitalist world: First and foremost, the unremitting avoidance of acknowledging that there is a sole Creators who decrees for man and the world and who is humankind's individual and collective judge. Related to this, it would end the unspoken secular moratorium on openly reflecting singly and together what this means for us, as individuals and as societies.


Second, Islam's economic revelation would reassign greed in this life to its deservedly shameful place in the darkened corners of society and replace it with ethics of liberality and munificence, generosity and charity.


Third Islam's economic revelation would reattach morality to wealth, and this would necessarily lead to a reassertion of two related ethics lost in capitalist society: Modesty and abstinence. And here we come to a significant challenge, for modesty is irrevocable connected to chastity, sexual propriety, and the alteration of dress-all of which have everything to do with marriage and the reassertion of families rights over that of the state, and parental, specifically paternal rights over that of the corporation.


As for abstinence, it empowers the individual conscience and reduces the hold of others (marketers, for example) on one, as well as establishes moderation as a prime ethic in life.


Islam's economics would, in a heartbeat, stop the spread of worthless debt notes, otherwise known as money as in currency, and terminate the system of interest, which are the twin evil underpinnings of the capitalist enterprise. Truth be told, these two are the root cause of the crises going on in the capitalist hemisphere and the world.



????WHEN WE SAY that the spread of worthless money and the interest based system are the root causes, capitalism itself becomes the real defendant, Gold and silver have been the cornerstones of the world's economies and wealth storage systems right from the earliest times. Even after the arrival of the barter system, men used to trade their merchandise by calculating its worth in gold or silver. When coins were introduced into the systems, they were initially made of gold or silver.


????In due course, banks came into being and they issued paper receipts equivalent to the value of the gold or silver deposited with them. These receipts were the forerunners of the currency that we use today. Although in modern times paper money has no intrinsic value, its acceptability originally depended on its being backed by gold or silver. For instance, on the earliest five-dollar bills was printed: "Five Silver Dollars," promising to pay that much of silver in exchange for that currency note.


????The currency notes of different lands represented either gold or silver equal to the value mentioned or the currency. With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Britain decided to withdraw gold from internal circulation and other countries also broke the link with gold. The United States, However, kept the link to gold and after the Second World War the US dollar replaced the pound sterling as the key global currency.


????Other countries fixed their exchange rates against the dollar, the value of which remained defined in terms of gold, In the early 1970s, the system of fixed exchange rates started to break down as a result of growing international inflation Tempted by the promise of windfall profit and accounting razzle-dazzle, the United States abandoned the dollars link with gold in 1971.


????Right from the time of the introduction of the currency notes, the system became prone to fraudulent activities. Since no one knew how much gold or silver a bank had in its vaults, in became easy for them to cheat the public by printing as much currency as they needed. That, in fact, became necessary since it was needed for survival in a interest-based system.


????Eventually, this became the monopoly of governments, which gave the false notion that they were printing currency in lieu of the gold and silver that they had in their exchequers. People continued to believe that the government held at least something as a security for the currency that they printed.


????This came to an end with the introduction of the fiat currency in 1971. Fiat money or fiat currency is money whose value is not derived from any intrinsic value or guarantee that it can be converted into a valuable commodity such as gold. Instead, it has value only by government other (fiat).


????Thus arose the situation in which governments could print as much currency as they wanted-money became money just because the government said it was money. This introduction of fiat money can be considered the prime reason for the recent financial turmoil all over the world. When we factor in the reality that this right to mint the coin of the realm has been given over by politicians to private banking interests in the world (the Federal Reserve, for instance, in the United States, which is about as federal as Federal Express) one can easily see the causes for the current global economic crisis and the inordinate influence just a few bankers hold over politicians and thus the nation.


????When that nation is the United States, that influence is global. Virtually the entire world linked their currency with the dollar. Agencies like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), controlled by America, gave loans to the so-called Third World countries only in line with their GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth. But not the United States. It could print currency without any such limitation. It has continued to print dollars in abundance and lend it to other nations. Thus vast regions of the world became indebted to the United States. This directly led to the evolution of a US-dominated world order.


????Any currency that would re-link itself to gold, or another precious resource, would almost instantly break the economic chains that link other currencies to the dollar. It is this fear that accompanies the emergency of China's Shanghai Cooperation Organization, who are said to be seeking to demote the dollar as the currency of international trade, or the recent panic that drove gold to record levels when it was said that oil would no longer be sold only based on the U.S. dollar.


????For this reason, agencies like the World Bank and the IMF sanction loans to countries without getting any security from them. These agencies themselves and the nations they avail of the loans know very well that the chances of the full settlement of these loans are quite remote. But as long as the supremacy of the dollar and interest based economic system prevails, other countries have had no option but to avail themselves of these loans.


????The debts of the developing countries are increasing at an exponential rate, doubling every decade. According to the statistics published by the IMF overall external debt of developing countries in the year 1980 was to the tune of $52.54 billion. It rise to $1,259.8 billion in 1990, and $21,406 billion in the year 2000. The interest and the repayable principal amounted increased to $73.4 billion in 1980, $140.6 billion in 1990, and $337.8 billion in the year 2009.


????The United Nation laments that the amount could have been sufficient to save 21 million children of Africa from death due to starvation and to provide elementary education to 90 million female children. It is estimated that everyday $700 million flows from developing countries to the developed countries.


????Unrestrained printing of currency and the interest-based economy led to the dollar dominating in the world financial markets and other nations taking the brunt of it. The economic crisis that the United States is facing at this juncture is nothing but the natural consequences of its policy maker's own policies. It must have been their overconfidence that the supremacy of the dollar would continue forever and that the bubble of the stock market's boom would keep on growing that allowed them to create derivative notes (an exotic kind of pyramid scheme that few understand and that banks play with one another) worth $100 trillion to be transacted in the United States at a time when the overall GDP of the entire world was only $78.5 trillion.

The current financial crisis has seriously eroded confidence in the Western world and has exposed the "free" market. Currently, when looking at alternatives, the Western world only sees remnants of Socialism or some state intervention in economy as feasible and workable systems. If the OPEC nations and the developing countries join hands and work in a cohesive manner, they could put an end to the situation of supremacy of one particular currency and rescue the nations that the suffering under the yokes of external debt.

Look at what the Qur'an says regarding the importance of wealth and how carefully it should be handled: "But do not give those who are {mentally} incompetent your wealth, for God has assigned you to maintain this {yourselves}. Rather, provided for them from it. And clothe them. And say to them a gracious {and comforting} word. [4:5]


Also: "Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger {to disburse}, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it does not merely circulated between the wealthy among you. Thus whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back, and be careful of {your duty to} Allah surely Allah is severe in retributing {evil} [59:7]


Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, sternly warned his followers against exploitation of any kind in commercial activities and to maintain transparency in all transaction: "Gold for gold, silver for silver, wheat for wheat, barley for barley, dates for dates, and salt for salt like for like, equal for equal, and hand to hand, if the commodities differ, then you may sell as you wish, provided that the exchange is hand-to-hand" (Muslim). This single command of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, is pregnant with protection that would have prevented the kind of behind the scenes derivative (purely innovated instruments that do not exist that "derive" their value from credit from other assets with no organic link to them) markets.


It is the duty of scholars to learn more deeply about the legitimacy of the transactions made using the fiat currency, which has no intrinsic value other than the value of its paper. In the light of the Islamic injunctions that all kinds of transactions should be transparent, we should examine how much the promises of the state that prints the currency should be believed. Is it possible to make 100 percent legitimate transactions with currencies that have no intrinsic value? Won't the systems that carry out interest-free transactions be adversely affected when dealing with currencies that are perennially losing their value due to inflationary trends? Is it not unreasonable to expect men who have money to serve humanity by suffering the losses incurred because of the depletion of the value of their money? These facts point out that the concept of fiat money is against the principles of financial transaction in Islam.




????THE ASSURANCE OF repayment of their currency notes that nations other than America provide the holders of their currency is based on the value of the dollar. Whatever the dollar is worth as it relates to their currency, they will pay. The dollar itself, however, has no intrinsic value and is built on flimsy foundations.

Why did America do this to itself? More accurately, why did the government of the people do this to its people? The immediate reason for the introduction of fiat money by the Nixon government was that Britain asked the U.S. Administration in 1971 to honor its commitment to issue gold for the dollars that the British government had. By detaching its currency from gold that pay out was ostensibly sidestepped.

Yet even renowned Western economists have questioned the legitimacy of fiat currency. One of the most important economists and political philosophers of the 20th century and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1974, Friedrich August von Hayek, has found fault with the system of fiat currency. The renowned German economist Ludwing Lachmann, American intellectual and economist Murray Newton Rothbard, British economist Israel Muir Christner, Dr. Chario Lavoy, Professor of Economics in New York University, Peter J. Boettke, an American economist and the Editor-in-Chief of Review of Austrian Economics are but a few among the great economists of the world who have raised doubts about the resilience of the world who have raised doubts about the resilience of the fiat currency and advocated the use of a currency with intrinsic value.

The Austrian Economists, known for being vocally against the prevailing world economic structure, are generally of the opinion that in monetary economics, fiat money is an intrinsically useless good as a means of payment and that fiat currencies ultimately destroy themselves and their nations with hyperinflation. Former presidential candidate Sen. Ron Paul's The Case for Gold, which is based on the Report of the U.S. Gold Commission, laments the fact that many people in American public life argue for the quality theory of money and for a currency which is based on its equivalent worth of gold but to no avail.

Those who still maintain the capitalistic mindset and yet argue in favor of the quality theory of money uphold the belief that this would put an end to inflation and related problems. Inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of good and services in an economy over a period of time.

The prominent factors that cause inflation are that the money in circulation increases, the availability of commodities decreases, the availability of commodities decreases, the value of money decreases, and the demand for commodities increases. If the governments can print currency only based on gold or silver that they actually have in their coffers, they would not be able to print currency indiscriminately.

This itself would curb inflation and decrease the burden of the common man. It would motive countries to produce in excess of their needs and earn gold-guaranteed money in return for the goods they export. It would lead to real economic advancement among people as opposed to the progress-on-paper that the world is accustomed to. This is how the world can really put into practice the divine principle that prosperity can be attained through sincere efforts.

Interest is one of the greatest banes of humanity. It necessitates suffering in this world and invites God's wrath here and in the Hereafter. According to several ahadeeth in Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim, interest is one of the seven deadly sins.

The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, said: The receiver and the payer of interest, the one who records it and the witnesses to the transaction have been cursed. He said: "They are all alike in guilt"(Muslim).

The Companion Samurah ibn Jundub reported that the Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallasm, "saw in his dream a man standing in a river of blood. On the riverbank, there stood a man who had stones, with him. Each time the man in the river wanted to come out, the man with the stones would throw a stone into his mouth, which would drive him back to his position. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, asked about this man in the river. He was informed he was man dealing in riba (Bukhaari)
The earliest bankers used to lend commodities charging interest for them. The traders who borrowed had to repay the debt by returning more stock to the bankers. But the clever bankers knew that this business would not last for long. This was the reason they came up with the idea of representative money, the forerunner of today's currency. The people who borrowed never realized how dangerous it was going to be. It has to be mentioned here that it was the introduction of currency that led to the tremendous growth of the banking industry.

The greatest obstacle to advancement for developing countries is the huge amount of interest that they have to pay every year for the dollars that they have borrowed for the World Bank and IMF. Heeding the words of advice voiced in favor of urbanization by the paid intellectuals of the West, most developing countries borrowed illogically and became victims of the debt trap,. It is almost impossible to escape from the trap once you have fallen into it. Hope gives way to disillusionment and frustration.

Suffering, starvation, malnutrition, and erosion of moral values are the immediate consequences. It is as if they are falling, falling-falling into a bottomless pit, and there is no one to send a search party. The governments continue to borrow to survive and live another day. The fact that almost 7 million children killed every year due to starvation and malnutrition should open the eyes of everyone. The per capita income of the United States rose from $9,983 in 1960 to $34,100 in the year 2000, an increase of about 400 percent. Remember the dwindling per capita income of Somalia in the same period $891 to $600? Similarly, the per capital income Madagascar decreased from $1,013 to $800, and that of Zambia came down to $750 from $1,172.

This pattern is no mystery. It is ubawy debt that is the tool of their enslavement. It is by the interest collected from these poor nations that "the great powers" have prospered and flourished.

The total amount of debt of the developed countries in the year 2005 was $290 billion. The repayment amount for that year amounted to $57.3 billion. Will these countries ever be able to repay their debts in full? Any sane person knows that they will not, forever. The politicians and rulers of the developed countries amass huge wealth through corruption, and their corporate houses reap rich harvests through shady business deals, At the same time the vast majority of human beings in the world suffer under the yoke of the heavy interest burden laid on their feeble shoulders by the World Bank and the IMF, which are the agencies of the developed nations.

The first cause of the financial crisis that has hit the entire world is the interest system. This system, which was deployed by the developed nations in order to exploit and subjugate other countries, has now begun to boomerang on them. They themselves call the crisis by another name � Credit Church 2008.

World Economic Outlook 1998 published by the IMF states that countries burdened heavily by excessive short-term borrowings will have to struggle greatly because of external and internal crises. The neo-liberalists of the developed nations had never anticipated that the interest system that they had anticipated that the interest system that they had employed so successfully to exploit poor countries would one day turn its serpent's head against them and attack them so viciously. Yet many still do not realize that they are succumbing to the same fate that any society based on interest is bound to suffer.

The practices of the modern banking system are in conflict with the principles of Islam. Islam strictly prohibits taking or giving interest. It opposes exploitation in every for and stands for fair and equitable dealings among all men.

Interest-based economies depend on the growth of money for their survival and expansion. Money does not grow of its own accord. It has to reach the hands of efficient entrepreneurs that make it grow, But the present system induces the entrepreneur to borrow relentlessly to aid the growth of the banks. The modern banking system is organized on the basis of a fixed payment called interest. They take away a huge portion of the profit that is made as a result of the hard work of the entrepreneurs. Even if a business they have invested in runs at a loss, they consider none of their money at risk. They still demand payment, regardless.

But bank not only reel in huge profit from the ungodly amounts of interest they receive, they also resort to the "creation" of credit. This process begins with banks lending money out of primary deposits. Primary deposits are those deposits that are deposited in banks. Through credit creation, banks are able to lend amounts much larger than the deposits that they have with them. For every $10 they have on land, they can give out $90 they don't have, purely by the fabrication of numbers in a computer. No paper money. Nothing. And even this $10 they have, can come to them another bank that has created it through just $1 it received from another bank, and so on up the chain to the Federal Reserve, who simply charges the American government for it, who is inventing it in the first place by fiat. You or I would be arrested for doing the same.

The mad rush by banks to make maximum profits is said to be responsible for the 2008 Credit Crisis. The prophecy made by Prophet Muhammed, sallallahu alayhe wa sallam, is reported to have said that the "intensity of ruin in store for those who increase their riches using interest will be in accordance with how much [interest] they received"(Ibn Majah).

Any same person who understands the fiat money fiasco and the credit creation scam we are in to turn real assets over to bankers who simply push buttons and make money out of thin air will immediately begin searching for an interest-free system. And that will naturally take him or her to the Islamic banking system.

In the 1980s, discussions about the alternate banking system began. In the last four decades, it is the Islamic banking system that has emerged as the "surprise" competitive and viable substitute for conventional banking.

In the Indian peninsula, some efforts have been made in this direction. But the first modern experiment with Islamic banking was undertaken in Egypt under cover without projecting an Islamic image. The pioneering effort, led by Ahmad Elnaggar, took the form of a saving bank based on profit-sharing in the Egyptian town of Mit Ghamr in 1963. The establishment of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) in July 1983 marked a milestone for the development of the Islamic financial system in Malaysia. BIMB carries out banking business similar to other commercial banks, but attempts to be consistent with the principles of the Shari'ah.

Dubai Islamic Bank, formed in 1973, is the most famous banking house of this category. By the year 1986, 27 such unconventional banks started functioning in various Muslim countries. In due course, the existing conventional banks opened their windows to associate with the Islamic banks for the convenience of the account holders in both the sectors. By the year 2000, about 200 such unconventional banks came into existence. Their paid up capital amounts to $8 billion and total deposits have crossed the meaningful $100 billion mark.

Elimination of riba, interest, in all its forms is an important feature of the Islamic financial system. Islamic banking is much more, however. At the heart of Islam is a sense of cooperation, to help one another according to principles of goodness and piety. Islamic finance may be viewed as a form of ethical investing or lending, except that no loans are possible unless they are interest-free.

The Islamic financial system promotes the concept of participation in a transaction backed by real assets, utilizing the funds at risk on a profit-and-loss sharing basis. This by no means implies that investments with financial institutions are necessarily speculative. This can be minimized by careful investment policy, diversification of risk, and prudent management. The concept of profit and loss sharing in an enterprise, as a basis of financial transactions, is a progressive one, as it distinguished good performance from bad and mediocre.

The Islamic banks have reportedly weathered the storm of the recent "credit crisis" very well. What is important is that this capacity is solely do to the humane nature of their investing and lending enterprise. It is Islam's principles of ethical wealth acquisition, disbursement, and gifting that have shielded the Islamic banks, Allah alone is the Provider, and Allah alone is the Protector.


????IN A WORLD neck deep in the lethal interest system, the emergence of the Islamic banking system offers a handhold of hope. Yet honesty and fear of God compels us to admit that many of these institutions do not, for various reasons, function in complete accord with the Islamic principles of blessed and moral wealth. They have their limitations not least of which is the sheer viciousness of the league they operate in.

They are forced to follow the same monetary policies evolved over the past few countries. But they have been able to make some effort to make at least a few changes in the present world economic system and show the world that there is a viable alternative that can be followed.

The first major effort by these Islamic banks to add momentum to this change is to adopt a currency based on its equivalent value of gold, silver, platinum, copper, or similarly precious commodities. If the electronic money that is inevitably going to be widely used in the world in the near future is given the guaranty of a value of commodities, it will be a great beginning.

In such a scenario, poor and developing countries will become primary beneficiaries of the Islamic banking system and they will surely recognize this. It is high time that the world realize that the present economic system is based on myths and frauds. Let the nations that Allah has blessed with real, commodity wealth, then, rethink their financial policies and invest in value based commodities in order to be able to lead the world down the financial straight path. Then they will be able to rescue the developing countries from the debt interest booby trap that they have fallen into.

The world is craving change and the key to that change has been placed in the hands of the Muslims. The current crisis represents an opportunity for Muslims to present the Islamic economic system as an alternative. Are Muslims ready to transform themselves and the world using the knowledge that God, the All-Knowing, has entrusted to them? Are Muslims courageous enough to declare to the world, as Prophet Joseph did to the Egyptian king facing catastrophic economic crisis though Joseph must have appeared the most unlikely candidate to do so, a slave coming for the from the depths of prison: "Appoint me over the treasuries of the land. I am a good keeper and well knowing" [12:55]?

The world, then, was at his command.




It is not amazing that a Muslim will never eat pork because it is haram(unlawful); never marry his mother or sister becasue it is also haram, yet that same person  has no problem devouring riba (e.g. interest, usury)? Did you know that engaging in  riba is a major sin which could lead you to Hell?


“....but  whoever returns (to dealing in riba), such are the dwellers of the Fire-they will abide therein.”  Qur'an 2:275


If dealing in riba is so punishable, why do many Muslims fall into this sin and take the issue so lightly ?


The meaning of Riba


Riba is an Arabic noun derived from the verb Raba, meaning ‘to increase', ‘to grow', and ‘to exceed'. It includes interest which is paid by banks or on loans such as car loans, home loans or credit card debt.


Proof tha Riba is Haram


There are many proofs showing that riba is haram and one of the most serious sins in Islam!


For those will true faithe in Allah and the Qur'an, this clear verse prohibiting riba is sufficient.


“....Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden riba”.   Qur'an 2:275


In the Qur'an,Allah does not declare war on anyone except those who deal in riba:


“O you who believe, fear Allah and give up what remains of your demand for riba, if you are indeed believers. If you do it not, take notice of war from Allah and His Messenger.” Qur'an 2:278-279)


Would you like Allah, The Almighty, to wage war against you after he has made it  abundantly clear that riba is Haram ?


The Prophet (peace be upon his ) warned that consuiming riba is one of the seven sins that doom a perons to Hell. (Bukhari and Muslim).


Riba is haram in all of its aspects, as t he Prophet (peace be upon him) said (Muslim).


“Allah has cursed the one who consumes riba, the one who gives it, the one who witnesses over it, and the one who writes down th e transaction.”


Do not be of those whom Allah has cursed!


Why is Riba haram?


The first and foremost reason riba is haram is because Allah declared it so. It is based on Allah's infinite wisdom that He deems an action to be obligatory or prohibited, prescribing matters in man's best interests, in this life and in teh Hereafter, as He is the All-Wise, All-Knowing. The scholars of Islam have suggested the following reasons as to why riba is haram:


·        Whole nations, dozens of them, large and small, have foreign debts so large that their riba payments on these debts are a crushing burden on the entire country. Debt kills. Some 11 million children die each year cround the world due to conditions of poverty and debt. Former President Obasanjo,commented on the debt Nigeria faces:


“All that we had borrowed upto 1985 or 1986 was around $billion and we have paid about $16 billion yet we are still being told that we owe about $28 billion.  That $28 billion came about because of the injustice in the foreign creditors'  (lenders) interests rates.  If you ask me what is the worst thing in the world, I will say it is compound interest”.


                                                       - Jubilee 2000 news update, August 2000.


·        Riba conflicts with the spirit of brotherhood and sympathy, and is based on greed, selfishness and  hard heartedness.


·        Riba is one of the major contributors towards inflation.


·        Riba causes trauma and depression due to mounting debts.


·      Riba is a sure gain without any possibility of loss, hence all the risk taken by the borrower, rather than sharing the risk and the profits with both parties.


·        Riba creates a monopoly in society, where the rich are rewarded for being wealthy, while those who are not are forced to pay extra!


During the global financial crisis in2008 and 2009, the Daily Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, reported the Vatican as saying that the Islamic finance system may help Western banks in the crisis as an alternative. The Vatican advised: “The ethical  principles on which Islamic finance is based may brings banks closer to their clients and to the true spirit which should mark every financial service.”


Where a riba-based market fails, Islamic financial institutions do not suffer the same consequences since the risk is shared by both parties. Lenders will be more careful, as they also share the risk of losing money if the borrower cannot pay back the original sum.


Given all the problems that riba creates, it is no wonder Islam prohibits such a detestable act.


How can I avoid  Riba ?


Living  in a capitalist society makes it difficult to completely avoid riba. However this should not be used as an excuse to freely indulge in it. An obvious way to steer  clear of this evil is to not take out a loan which involves paying riba. 


Other solutions include:


ü      Opening up riba-free bank accounts


ü  Not entering into contracts which stipulate riba penalities even though one intends to pay on time.


ü  Making bill payments on time so as not to incur a late penalty.


ü  Meeting any conditions required to continue trading without the use of riba.


ü  Borrowing money from family or friends where possible.


ü  Dealing with Islamically compliant banks


ü  Renting if you cannot afford to buy a house without riba.


ü  Accepting / organizing a “good loan” (al-qard al-hasanah), which is a loan by means of which one intends to show kindness to another, which does not involve taking riba.


With regard to the interest that the bank has given you, do not return nor consume it. Rather, spend it on charitable causes ,  such a giving it to the poor, buying disposable items (like toilet paper) for Islamic centers and mosques, and  helping debtors. However, do not expect reward for this.


The most effective way to avoid riba and determine which transactions are permissible, is by consulting Islamic Scholars and utilizing their knowledge.


What if I'am desperate ?


In Islam, one is forgiven for performing a forbidden act in times of desperation. Therefore, if one is forced to use riba, risk extreme hardship or death, it becomes temporarily permissible, until that hardship is overcome.  Keep in mind that enduring the hardship caused by refraining from riba, for the sake of Allah, will gain reward. A person of Islamic knowledge and understanding of one's personal situation, must be the one to determine if a person is indeed in difficulty. Otherwise, this exception to the rule may be taken advantage of , and many people may wrongly consume riba and suffer the consequences laid out by Allah.


There is a common misconception amongst Muslims with regards to buying a first house using riba. Some claim that it is permissible, a “necessity”. The fact that one can easily rent a house instead of buying, disproves this claim. If the theory were true, would that then mean that drinking the first bottle of alcohol is permissible, even though water is available? Or eating pork when there is a permissible substitute ? While it may be easy to fool others into believing this, we must remember that:


“……Allah knows that all you reveal and all that you conceal”. (Qur'an 5:99}


Paying rent in order to support oneself and their family is not “wated money”. Insha Allah, Alla the Most Appreciative, will reward this like charity:  When some one spends on his family seeking his reward for it from Allah, it is counted as a charity from him”. (Bukhari and Muslim).


Success in this life and the hereafter


When examining this issue of riba, we should remember that true success lies with the help of Allah alone. If we abide by that which is lawful, and avoid that which is haram, our wealth will be blessed and beneficial in this world and the Hereafter.  What good is extra money earned through riba if there is no blessing in it, and it is cursed – a source of misery?


On the Day Resurrection, people will rise from their graves quickly, except those who engaged in riba. They will stand up and then fall down like epileptics because:


“Those who consume riba cannot stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except as one stands who is being beaten by Satan into insanity. That is because they say, ‘Trade is (just) like riab'. But Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden riba…..” (Qur'an 2:275).


Such is the punishment for those who consume riba and do not sincerely repent from this great sin.


As for those who strive toward success by earning Allah's pleasure, they take comfort from the following verse:


“O you who believe! Do not devour Riab (e.g. interest), making it double & redouble, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, that you may be successful.” (Qur'an 3:130).


We are also shown how to be successful in the Hereafter:


“The only saying of the faithful believers when they are called to Allah (His Words-the Qur'an) and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey.” And such are the successful (who will live forever in Paradise).” Qur'an 24:51.




None can doubt that riba is haram and a major sin, and no disobedience to Allah is worth the risk of His punishment. We must remember that the life of this world is short and fleeting, and that the purpose of our existence is not to lust after  beauty and wealth, but rather to worship Allah correctly and live by His rules. Just because riba is widespread and common, it does not make it permissible.


“And whosoever fears Allah and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty), and will provide him sustenance from where he never even imagined. And whosoever puts his trust in Allah, Allah is sufficient for him”.  Qur'an 65: 2- 3.

About The Quran

The Qur'an is the last scripture that has been revealed to mankind by the Lord Creator and Protector. It was through the Last Messenger, Muhammad (e), that the world first heard of it. It certainly is the divine scripture that is to be accepted by all, upto the very last man.

The term ‘Qur'an' has the meanings of ‘the recitation', or ‘that which is to be recited' and of ‘that which is recited.' Indeed, the Qur'an itself has employed the connotation ‘the scripture that is recited' in connection with this term (13:31). Unlike the earlier scriptures, the Qur'an is never a compilation of legal pronouncements or code of laws (Taurat), or hymns (Zaboor) or a collection of Gospel or good news (Injeel). It is highly probable that the Qur'an has been named as the last scripture because each one of its words is to be repeatedly read by thousands upon thousands of its believers and is to be so etched into their hearts so as to mould their very lives according to its guidelines. As for the actual reason, it is the Lord Who sent it Who knows the answer thereof. 

As far as its believers are concerned, the Qur'an is but the benchmart to distinguish truth from falsehood. They understand that all that has been commanded therein constitute the good and all that has been prohibited therein constitute evil. In fact, the Qur'an introduces itself as Furqaan (2:53, 2:185, 3:4, 25:1) which means ‘the criterion to distinguish between truth and falsehood.' The Qur'an also describes itself as Kitab (book), Dhikr (guidance), Burhaan (evidence), Shifa (cure), Kayyim (that which is pure), Muhaymin (that which preserves the previous scriptures) and the like. Through these attributes the reader of the Qur'an is exposed

to the clear picture of the morality enshrined within. What is the meaning of ‘Book of Vedas'? The term Veda is a sanskrit word which means knowledge, learning etc. According to the vedic vision, the Vedas signify Shruthi (or ‘that which is heard'). It is believed that the contents of the Vedas comprise the words of the Lord Creator as heard by the Rishis. The Rig Veda states that the Vedas originate in the Parampurush (10:90:9). In any event, the term Veda has been used in India to mean divine scripture. In due course of time, even the followers of the semitic religions in India have tended to describe their own religious scriptures as Vedas.


The term which the Qur'an has employed to refer to revealed scripture is Al-Kitab which, in turn, simply means ‘the Scripture'. The Qur'anic view is that the religious scripture consists of the revelations made to the messenger by the Lord Creator Himself. divine revelations have been referred to as Wahy and as far as a revealed scripture is concerned, it contains Wahy alone. However, it is not necessary that all Wahy made to all messengers should find mention in a scripture. In fact, it is only that portion of the Wahy which has been received with the special command for its inception in the scriptural text, that ultimately finds expression in it.

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Response to criticism

1) What is the Qur'an?

2) What is the purpose of the revealed scripture?

3) What does the Qur'an say about the scriptures that preceded it?

4) Are the Tauraat, the Zaboor, and the Injeel the Torah (Pentateuch), Psalms and the Gospels mentioned in the Bible?

5) What does the Qur'an say about the Hindu Vedas?

6) What is the theme of the Qur'an?

7) The Qur'an's style of presentation....?

8) On the wordings and chapters of the Qur'an.....?

9) What are the evidences in favour of the Qur'an being a divine Sripture?

10) Does the Qur'an claim divine status for itself?

11) Do not the other religious scriptures also claim the status of Divinity for themselves?

12) It has been mentioned in 3:16 of 2 Timothy that the Bible is the word of God. What is it that is implied here?

13) Will a book become divine merely by way of its own claim of being divinely inspired?

14) Can it not be claimed that the Qur'an's has been but the composition of Muhammad (pbuh) himself ?

15) In composing the Qur'an, could it not have been the intention of Muhammad ( S.A.W) to achieve for himself the wordly benefits that may accrue in establishing himself as the messenger of God?

16) What is wrong in considering that Muhammad ( S.A.W) had aimed for worldly power?

17) Can it not be professed that the Qur'an was a book composed by Muhammad (e) with the objective of uniting the quarrelsome Arabs and to, thereby, lead them to the heights of greatness?

18) If it was said that the Qur'an was a book which was written by Muhammad (S.A.W) in order that a society steeped in immorality be led to morality, can this assertion be denied?

19) Could it not have been that Muhammad ( S.A.W) suffered from Schizophrenia and that the feeling of revelations was but a symptom of that disorder? In fact, was he not called a madman by his contemporaries?

20) Muhammed ( S.A.W) might have received revelation. But could it not have been Satanic revelations?

21) What is implied when it is said that the Qur'an is a supernatural sign?

22) What is it that makes the Qur'an a supernatural sign?

23) What are the factors that make the Qur'an incomparable and inimitable?

24) It is said that literature becomes truly meaningful when the winds of change blow hard within the mind of the listener. From this perspective can it be said that the Qur'an is a work of great literary merit?

25) Can it be said that the Qur'an is a divine scripture simply on the ground of it being a work of great literary merit?

26) Is not the Qur'an a literary creation like every other incomparable work of literature that form the magnum opus of each language? Is not the challenge in the Qur'an as futile as every other challenge that calls for the creation of another like it?

27) Was the Qur'an received by the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) from God in a compiled form?

28) If the Qur'an is a book that has been revealed by God Almighty for the guidance of mankind, could it not have been revealed in the form of a complete book?

29) When was it that the verses of the Qur'an, revealed, as they were, at different times, came to be compiled as a complete whole?

30) Was the Qur'an compiled as a complete book during the time of Muhammed (S.A.W) ?

31) When and under what circumstance was the Qur'an compiled as a complete book bound between two cover pages?

32) After Christ, his followers wrote down the Gospel, After Muhammed (pbuh) his followers wrote down the Qur'an : is there any difference between these two events?

33) Does the copy of the Qur'an which was compiled during the reign of Abu Bakr (r) exist today? If not, why?

34) It was at the council of Nicea in 325 C.E. that it was decided to burn all the other Christian writings apart from those scriptures that were accepted as canonical. Usman (r) gave the order to burn all the other existing copies of the Qur'an apart from the version which was compiled upon his instructions. What is the difference between the action of the Nicea Council and that of Usman?

35) How can the code of right conduct prescribed by the Qur'an stand as the proof for it's divinity ?

36) Does the Qur'an itself claim that the order of righteousness prescribed by it is absolutely faultless ?

37) In what respect is it said that the order of righteousness introduced by the Qur'an is a faultless one ?

38) Do not the other religious scriptures also prescribe an exemplary code of righteous conduct ?

39) It is seen that Muslim traditions, too, attest the correctness of the descriptions of many of the sins that have been attributed to the prophets by the Bible. Is it not to be understood from this that Muslims also consider that they did, indeed, commit sins ?

40) Does the Qur'an then teach that the Prophet could never be faulted in any way ?

41) It is given to understand from numerous references in the Qur'an that Muhammad (S.A.W) had himself committed a number of sins. How can this be so ?

42) How substantial is the allegation that the social setup envisioned by the Qur'an is a male dominated one?

43) What is the Qur'anic idea of the woman ?

44) Patriarchial systems speak to the woman of her obligations while to the man they speak of rights. Is this not evident in the Qur'an also?

45) Is not the Hindu vision which teaches that goddesses bless the place wherein the woman is worshipped more acceptable to woman than the Qur'an?

46) The basis of the freedom enjoyed by women in the western world is the Christian vision. As such, is not the outlook of the Christian religion more suited to women than the Qur'anic outlook ?

47) Is not the Marxian view which sees both man and woman as two equal members of the working class more favourable for the woman than the Qur'anic vision ?

48) Is not the concept of the equality of sexes in modern democracy more suited than the Qur'anic vision ?

49) There are verses in the Qur'an which allow for the superiority and command of the man over the woman. Do these not make it evident that the Qur'an is a work of male chauvinism?

50) By comparing woman to a tilth, does not the Qur'an actually see them as mere instruments for reproduction ?

51) By permitting polygamy, has not the Qur'an infringed upon the rights of woman?

52) Why does the Qur'an, which allows polygamy for men, disallow polyandry for women?

53) The Qur'an does recommend that men are to receive twice the portion of women in their share of inheritance. Is this not an explicit discrimination?

54) It is the requirement of the Qur'an that there be two female witnesses in place of one male witness. Is this not a clear care of injustice against the woman?

55) By commanding woman to wear the veil (Hijab), the symbol of slavery, does not the Qur'an confine her within the high walls of a reclusive tradition?

56) The Qur'an has permitted man to beat woman. Is this not a denial of her rights?

57) By permitting divorce has not the Qur'an involved itself in creating helpless women and children?

58) Does not the Qur'an see the wife as a mere instrument that can be disposed off by uttering Talaq thrice?

59) Does woman have a right to divorce like man? What is the Qur'anic recommendation in this matter?

60) The Qur'an instructs that the widow must separate herself from society and must maintain a mourning period of more than four months. Is this not a restriction imposed upon woman?

61) The Qur'anic law states that if the deceased person leaves behind a son, the orphaned grandson cannot be a heir. Is this not unlawful and an injustice shown to orphans?

62) By disallowing the right to inheritance to the orphaned grandson, does Islam mean to leave him to his fate? What is the solution prescribed by Islam for this problem ?

63) Considering the provision that if there is only a single son he is entitled inherit the wealth of the father, is it not a clear breach of justice that if there is but a single daughter who is the heir to inheritance, she be given only one-half of the total wealth and if there be more than one daughter, they be given only from two-thirds of the total assets of the father ?

64) If, in accordance with the Qur'anic law, the three daughters of the deceased person are allotted two-third and the parents one-third of the wealth of inheritance in the event that they are all alive, there will be nothing left of the wealth of inheritance. Then from where can the one-eighth part for the wife (4:12) be provided for ? Does this not show that the laws of inheritance mentioned in the Qur'an are impracticable and faulty?

65) What is the Qur'an's approach towards slavery ?

66) What were the practical steps which the Qur'an adopted for the eradication of slavery ?

67) Has not the Qur'an actually legalized adultery by allowing for the master to have sexual relationships with his female slaves?

68) Why did the Qur'an not make marriage mandatory for having sexual relations with the slave woman?

69) Why did Islam not limit the number of one's slave woman ?

70) Why was it that the Qur'an did not go to the extent of completely prohibiting slavery ?

71) Can it be said that the Qur'an is a practicable book in all respects?

72) What is the evidence in favour of the Qur'an being a practicable book?

73) Do not the other religions scriptures, too, offer a legislation that is as practicable as well ?

74) It has been said that some of the rulings in the Qur'an have been abrogated (Mansukh). What is meant by this abrogation?

75) Will it not affect the status of the Qur'an's divinity if it is said that it became necessary to change some of the earlier injunctions of the Qur'an at a later period in time ? If the Qur'an is, indeed, from the Omniscient God would such changes have been necessary ?

76) The verses which contain the abrogated rulings are, to this very day, found to exist within the Qur'an. Why is this so ?

77) There is also an opinion which holds that there are no abrogatedverses, whatsoever, within the Qur'an. Is this true ?

78) There has also been the opinion that around two hundred of the verses of the Qur'an have been abrogated. Is this true ?

79) Is it not baseless to claim that the penal laws of the Qur'an which were once effective in the societies of a tribal and racial character, are as effective in the modern age of democratic governance?

80) Under which category do the penal laws of the Qur'an fall? Are they oriented towards the individual or towards the society ?

81) On which type of values is the penal laws of the Qur'an founded?

82) How can it be claimed that the penal laws of the Qur'an are practicable ?

83) Other religious texts, too, seek to give a prescription of penal laws. What is it that makes the penal laws in the Qur'an different from them ?

84) The goal of penal law is to ultimately eliminate crime itself. Is not the modern practice of incarcerating criminals under long terms in prison in order to effectively stop them from committing crimes again, more merciful than the cruel penal laws of the Qur'an ?

85) Why does the Qur'an's perspective differ the stand of the modern science of criminology which holds that it is necessary to adopt a sympathetic approach towards criminals?

86) Does not the Qur'an, by amputating the hand of the one who commits theft, totally neglect the family, which depended on him for its living?

87) What is wrong if two individuals desire to get involved in a sexual relationship with each other ?

88) Will it be possible to eliminate extra-marital relationships through the punishments prescribed in the Qruan ?

89) Islam prescribes two types of punishments for adultery. Why is this so ?

90) Why is it that Islam prescribed two types of punishment for the same crime ?

91) Will not the implementation of the penal laws of the Qur'an give rise to a situation whereby any person can be done away with using allegation of adultery ?

92) Is it not meaningless to justify a ruling like 'murder for murder', which modern-day criminologists have termed barbaric, merely because it is stated in the Qur'an ?

93) What will the family of the murdered person gain if the murderer is killed in retaliation ? What recommendations does the Qur'an make in order to protect the family of the murdered person ?

94) Non-Muslims have been referred to in the Qur'an as Kafir. It is given to understand that that is an uncouth expression. What does this term actually mean ?

95) Does not the Qur'an recommend the forcible conversion of Non-Muslims ?

96) Does not the Qur'an, which strongly prohibits idolatry, encourage Muslims to demolish the objects of worship of other religionists ?

97) The Qur'an instructs against having intimate relations with Non-Muslims and against having them as friends. Is this not communalism?

98) What is the verdict of the Qur'an concerning friendly relations with the Non-Muslims who exhibit no enmity towards Islam or the Muslim ?

99) The Qur'an prohibits marital relations with other religionists. Is this not communalism ?

100) The Qur'an permits the Muslim man to marry from amongst the 'People of the Book'. It does not, however, permit the Muslim woman to marry a man of the 'People of the Book'. Is this not a blatant injustice ?

101) Is not Jihad the battle against those who are not Muslims? Does not the Qur'an, which incites Muslims to Jihad, thereby propagate animosity towards other religions ?

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